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Congressional Budget Office, 2013
In fiscal year 2011, the federal government provided $607 billion in grants to state and local governments. Those funds accounted for 17 percent of federal outlays, 4 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), and a quarter of spending by state and local governments that year. Over the past 30 years, those "intergovernmental" grants--financial…
Descriptors: Federal Aid, Grants, Federal Government, State Government
Congressional Budget Office, 2013
The Federal Direct Student Loan Program offers loans to students and their parents to help pay for postsecondary education. Under current law, about $1.4 trillion in new direct loans will be made to students between 2013 and 2023, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) projects. Analysts and policymakers have raised concerns about various features…
Descriptors: Federal Aid, Student Financial Aid, Student Loan Programs, Paying for College
Congressional Budget Office, 2013
The Federal Pell Grant Program was created to improve the access of low-income students to postsecondary education. Grant recipients enroll at a variety of educational institutions, including four-year colleges and universities, for-profit schools, two-year community colleges, and institutions that specialize in occupational training. Grants are…
Descriptors: Federal Aid, Grants, Access to Education, Low Income Groups
Carrington, William; Dahl, Molly; Falk, Justin – Congressional Budget Office, 2013
The federal government devotes roughly one-sixth of its spending to 10 major means-tested programs and tax credits, which provide cash payments or assistance in obtaining health care, food, housing, or education to people with relatively low income or few assets. Those programs and credits consist of the following: (1) Medicaid; (2) the low-income…
Descriptors: Federal Government, Federal Aid, Federal Programs, Tax Credits
Campbell, Sheila; Tawil, Natalie – Congressional Budget Office, 2013
The federal government pays for a wide range of goods and services that are expected to be useful some years in the future. Those purchases, called investment, fall into three categories: physical capital, research and development (R&D), and education and training. There are several economic rationales for federal investment. It can provide…
Descriptors: Federal Government, Federal Aid, Investment, Grants
Congressional Budget Office, 2010
Colleges and universities enjoy a variety of federal tax preferences that are designed to support a broader public purpose--the advancement of higher education and research. Not only are institutions of higher learning exempt from paying federal income taxes, they also are eligible to receive tax deductible charitable contributions and allowed to…
Descriptors: Educational Finance, Colleges, Universities, Taxes
Lucas, Deborah; Moore, Damien – Congressional Budget Office, 2010
The Department of Education oversees various programs to help students pay for the costs of postsecondary education. This Congressional Budget Office (CBO) study focuses on the two largest student loan programs created under the authority of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (as amended): (1) The Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) program, which…
Descriptors: Federal Aid, Student Loan Programs, Federal Programs, Politics of Education
Piccinini, Kristy; Zimmerman, Dennis – Congressional Budget Office, 2009
This Congressional Budget Office (CBO) paper, which was prepared at the request of the Ranking Member of the Senate Finance Committee, compares athletic departments' share of revenue from commercial sources with that of the rest of the schools' activities to assess the degree of their commercialization. It also discusses the benefits of…
Descriptors: College Athletics, Physical Activities, Income, Audits (Verification)
Lex, Leo – Congressional Budget Office, 2009
In this report, part of an annual series that began in 1997, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) reviews its activities under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995. The report covers public laws enacted and legislation considered by the Congress in 2008 that would impose federal mandates on state, local, or tribal governments or on the…
Descriptors: Federal Government, Budgeting, Federal Legislation, Expenditures
Lex, Leo – Congressional Budget Office, 2009
Federal law sometimes requires state, local, or tribal governments to spend money to achieve certain goals. In some cases, a requirement is imposed as a condition for receiving federal aid; in others, requirements can be imposed through the exercise of the federal government's sovereign power. The Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (UMRA)…
Descriptors: Federal Aid, Federal Legislation, Federal Government, Costs
Musick, Nathan – Congressional Budget Office, 2009
States and localities issue debt to finance projects undertaken by government and, in some cases, by the private sector (bonds issued by states and localities to finance either government operations or certain private-sector activities are known as municipal bonds). The federal government subsidizes the issuance of municipal bonds by offering tax…
Descriptors: Federal Government, Budgeting, Financial Support, Private Sector
Congressional Budget Office, 2009
H.R. 3221 would amend the Higher Education Act of 1965, which authorizes most federal postsecondary education programs. It would prohibit new federally guaranteed loans from being made under the Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program and would increase direct spending for the Federal Pell Grant Program and other programs. The elimination of…
Descriptors: Federal Aid, Student Loan Programs, Federal Programs, Student Financial Aid
Manchester, Joyce; Topoleski, Julie – Congressional Budget Office, 2008
In a continuation of long-term trends, life expectancy has been steadily increasing in the United States for the past several decades. Accompanying the recent increases, however, is a growing disparity in life expectancy between individuals with high and low income and between those with more and less education. The difference in life expectancy…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Poverty, Cohort Analysis, Social Indicators
Weinberg, Steven; Moore, Damien – Congressional Budget Office, 2006
The federal government's student loan programs for higher education convey substantial financial benefits to borrowers because of their broad availability and favorable terms. Of the various provisions included in a federal student loan contract, the option to consolidate individual loans contributes greatly to a borrower's benefits and the cost…
Descriptors: Federal Government, Student Loan Programs, Federal Aid, Loan Repayment
Weinberg, Steven – Congressional Budget Office, 2006
Federal student loans include a complex consolidation option that gives borrowers the opportunity to combine several loans into a single loan with a longer term to maturity and, for loans originated before July 2006, to convert from a variable- to a fixed-rate loan. The consolidation option adds substantial costs to the federal student loan…
Descriptors: Costs, Federal Programs, Student Loan Programs, Postsecondary Education
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