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Showing 1 to 15 of 886 results Save | Export
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Tessler, Michael Henry; Goodman, Noah D. – Cognitive Science, 2022
The meanings of natural language utterances depend heavily on context. Yet, what counts as context is often only implicit in conversation. The utterance "it's warm outside" signals that the temperature outside is relatively high, but the temperature could be high relative to a number of different "comparison classes": other…
Descriptors: Language Processing, Speech, Context Effect, Form Classes (Languages)
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Parsons, John-Dennis; Davies, Jim – Cognitive Science, 2022
Analogical reasoning is a core facet of higher cognition in humans. Creating analogies as we navigate the environment helps us learn. Analogies involve reframing novel encounters using knowledge of familiar, relationally similar contexts stored in memory. When an analogy links a novel encounter with a familiar context, it can aid in problem…
Descriptors: Correlation, Thinking Skills, Schemata (Cognition), Inferences
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Jevtovic, Mina; Antzaka, Alexia; Martin, Clara D. – Cognitive Science, 2022
English-speaking children and adults generate "orthographic skeletons" (i.e., preliminary orthographic representations) solely from aural exposure to novel words. The present study examined whether skilled readers generate orthographic skeletons for all novel words they learn or do so only when the words have a unique possible spelling.…
Descriptors: Spelling, Novelty (Stimulus Dimension), Adults, Spanish Speaking
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Mansfield, John; Saldana, Carmen; Hurst, Peter; Nordlinger, Rachel; Stoll, Sabine; Bickel, Balthasar; Perfors, Andrew – Cognitive Science, 2022
Inflectional affixes expressing the same grammatical category (e.g., subject agreement) tend to appear in the same morphological position in the word. We hypothesize that this cross-linguistic tendency toward "category clustering" is at least partly the result of a learning bias, which facilitates the transmission of morphology from one…
Descriptors: Morphology (Languages), Morphemes, Grammar, Transfer of Training
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Perfors, Andrew; Kidd, Evan – Cognitive Science, 2022
Humans have the ability to learn surprisingly complicated statistical information in a variety of modalities and situations, often based on relatively little input. These statistical learning (SL) skills appear to underlie many kinds of learning, but despite their ubiquity, we still do not fully understand precisely what SL is and what individual…
Descriptors: Statistics Education, Individual Differences, Perception, Stimuli
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Joo, Sehrang; Yousif, Sami R.; Keil, Frank C. – Cognitive Science, 2022
Adults and children 'promiscuously' endorse teleological answers to 'why' questions--a tendency linked to arguments that humans are intuitively theistic and naturally unscientific. But how do people arrive at an endorsement of a teleological answer? Here, we show that the endorsement of teleological answers need not imply unscientific reasoning (n…
Descriptors: Questioning Techniques, Intuition, Preferences, Adults
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Kocab, Annemarie; Davidson, Kathryn; Snedeker, Jesse – Cognitive Science, 2022
Classical quantifiers (like "all," "some," and "none") express relationships between two sets, allowing us to make generalizations (like "no elephants fly"). Devices like these appear to be universal in human languages. Is the ubiquity of quantification due to a universal property of the human mind or is it…
Descriptors: Natural Language Processing, Form Classes (Languages), Cognitive Processes, Spanish
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Mosca, Michela; Manawamma, Chaya; de Bot, Kees – Cognitive Science, 2022
Previous research has shown that language switching is costly, and that these costs are likely to persist even when speakers are given ample time to prepare. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are cognitive limitations to speakers' ability to prepare for a switch, or whether a new language can be prepared in advance and any cost…
Descriptors: Language Usage, Indo European Languages, English (Second Language), Bilingualism
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Godwin, Karrie E.; Leroux, Audrey J.; Seltman, Howard; Scupelli, Peter; Fisher, Anna V. – Cognitive Science, 2022
Prior research suggests that visual features of the classroom environment (e.g., charts and posters) are potential sources of distraction hindering children's ability to maintain attention to instructional activities and reducing learning gains in a laboratory classroom. However, prior research only examined short-term exposure to elements of…
Descriptors: Visual Stimuli, Attention Span, Habituation, Classroom Environment
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Aguirre, Marie; Brun, Mélanie; Couderc, Auriane; Reboul, Anne; Senez, Philomène; Mascaro, Olivier – Cognitive Science, 2022
Anticipating the learning consequences of actions is crucial to plan efficient information seeking. Such a capacity is needed for learners to determine which actions are most likely to result in learning. Here, we tested the early ontogeny of the human capacity to anticipate the amount of learning gained from seeing. In study 1, we tested infants'…
Descriptors: Toddlers, Infants, Goal Orientation, Cognitive Processes
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Giustolisi, Beatrice; Martin, Jordan S.; Westphal-Fitch, Gesche; Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Cecchetto, Carlo – Cognitive Science, 2022
Previous research has hypothesized that human sequential processing may be dependent upon hearing experience (the "auditory scaffolding hypothesis"), predicting that sequential rule learning abilities should be hindered by congenital deafness. To test this hypothesis, we compared deaf signer and hearing individuals' ability to acquire…
Descriptors: Deafness, Grammar, Artificial Languages, Auditory Perception
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Elazar, Amit; Alhama, Raquel G.; Bogaerts, Louisa; Siegelman, Noam; Baus, Cristina; Frost, Ram – Cognitive Science, 2022
How does prior linguistic knowledge modulate learning in verbal auditory statistical learning (SL) tasks? Here, we address this question by assessing to what extent the frequency of syllabic co-occurrences in the learners' native language determines SL performance. We computed the frequency of co-occurrences of syllables in spoken Spanish through…
Descriptors: Prior Learning, Native Language, Syllables, Auditory Perception
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Brehm, Laurel; Cho, Pyeong Whan; Smolensky, Paul; Goldrick, Matthew A. – Cognitive Science, 2022
Subject-verb agreement errors are common in sentence production. Many studies have used experimental paradigms targeting the production of subject-verb agreement from a sentence preamble ("The key to the cabinets") and eliciting verb errors (… "*were shiny"). Through reanalysis of previous data (50 experiments; 102,369…
Descriptors: Sentences, Sentence Structure, Grammar, Verbs
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Karaminis, Themis; Hintz, Florian; Scharenborg, Odette – Cognitive Science, 2022
Oral communication often takes place in noisy environments, which challenge spoken-word recognition. Previous research has suggested that the presence of background noise extends the number of candidate words competing with the target word for recognition and that this extension affects the time course and accuracy of spoken-word recognition. In…
Descriptors: Acoustics, Oral Language, Speech Communication, Word Recognition
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McGregor, Karla K.; Smolak, Erin; Jones, Michelle; Oleson, Jacob; Eden, Nichole; Arbisi-Kelm, Timothy; Pomper, Ronald – Cognitive Science, 2022
Children with developmental language disorder (DLD) served as a test case for determining the role of extant vocabulary knowledge, endogenous attention, and phonological working memory abilities in cross-situational word learning. First-graders (M[subscript age] = 7 years; 3 months), 44 with typical development (TD) and 28 with DLD, completed a…
Descriptors: Elementary School Students, Grade 1, Developmental Disabilities, Language Impairments
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