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De Deyne, Simon; Navarro, Danielle J.; Collell, Guillem; Perfors, Andrew – Cognitive Science, 2021
One of the main limitations of natural language-based approaches to meaning is that they do not incorporate multimodal representations the way humans do. In this study, we evaluate how well different kinds of models account for people's representations of both concrete and abstract concepts. The models we compare include unimodal distributional…
Descriptors: Models, Definitions, Concept Formation, Linguistics
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Chen, Zhong; Hale, John T. – Cognitive Science, 2021
Information-theoretic complexity metrics, such as Surprisal (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008) and Entropy Reduction (Hale, 2003), are linking hypotheses that bridge theorized expectations about sentences and observed processing difficulty in comprehension. These expectations can be viewed as syntactic derivations constrained by a grammar. However, this…
Descriptors: Sentences, Language Processing, Phrase Structure, Nouns
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Wu, Sarah A.; Gibson, Edward – Cognitive Science, 2021
When asked to identify objects having unique shapes and colors among other objects, English speakers often produce redundant color modifiers ("the red circle") while Spanish speakers produce them less often ("el circulo (rojo)"). This cross-linguistic difference has been attributed to a difference in word order between the two…
Descriptors: Word Order, Predictor Variables, Contrastive Linguistics, English
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Fairchild, Sarah; Papafragou, Anna – Cognitive Science, 2021
In sentences such as "Some dogs are mammals," the literal semantic meaning ("Some 'and possibly all' dogs are mammals") conflicts with the pragmatic meaning ("'Not all' dogs are mammals," known as a "scalar implicature"). Prior work has shown that adults vary widely in the extent to which they adopt the…
Descriptors: Executive Function, Theory of Mind, Semantics, Pragmatics
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Zhang, Icy; Givvin, Karen B.; Sipple, Jeffrey M.; Son, Ji Y.; Stigler, James W. – Cognitive Science, 2021
Producing content-related gestures has been found to impact students' learning, whether such gestures are spontaneously generated by the learner in the course of problem-solving, or participants are instructed to pose based on experimenter instructions during problem-solving and word learning. Few studies, however, have investigated the effect of…
Descriptors: Motion, Human Body, Nonverbal Communication, Cognitive Processes
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Stocco, Andrea; Prat, Chantel S.; Graham, Lauren K. – Cognitive Science, 2021
The ability to reason and problem-solve in novel situations, as measured by the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM), is highly predictive of both cognitive task performance and real-world outcomes. Here we provide evidence that RAPM performance depends on the ability to reallocate attention in response to self-generated feedback about…
Descriptors: Individual Differences, Rewards, Abstract Reasoning, Problem Solving
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Hawkins, Robert D.; Gweon, Hyowon; Goodman, Noah D. – Cognitive Science, 2021
Recent debates over adults' theory of mind use have been fueled by surprising failures of perspective-taking in communication, suggesting that perspective-taking may be relatively effortful. Yet adults routinely engage in effortful processes when needed. How, then, should speakers and listeners allocate their resources to achieve successful…
Descriptors: Adults, Theory of Mind, Perspective Taking, Pragmatics
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Freudenthal, Daniel; Ramscar, Michael; Leonard, Laurence B.; Pine, Julian M. – Cognitive Science, 2021
Children with developmental language disorder (DLD) have significant deficits in language ability that cannot be attributed to neurological damage, hearing impairment, or intellectual disability. The symptoms displayed by children with DLD differ across languages. In English, DLD is often marked by severe difficulties acquiring verb inflection.…
Descriptors: Verbs, Language Impairments, Symptoms (Individual Disorders), Associative Learning
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Garofalo, Gioacchino; Marino, Barbara F. M.; Bellelli, Stefano; Riggio, Lucia – Cognitive Science, 2021
We performed three experiments to investigate whether adjectives can modulate the sensorimotor activation elicited by nouns. In Experiment 1, nouns of graspable objects were used as stimuli. Participants had to decide if each noun referred to a natural or artifact, by performing either a precision or a power reach-to-grasp movement. Response grasp…
Descriptors: Nouns, Form Classes (Languages), Reaction Time, Psychomotor Skills
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Zhang, Xujin; Wu, Yunan Charles; Holt, Lori L. – Cognitive Science, 2021
Cognitive systems face a tension between stability and plasticity. The maintenance of long-term representations that reflect the global regularities of the environment is often at odds with pressure to flexibly adjust to short-term input regularities that may deviate from the norm. This tension is abundantly clear in speech communication when…
Descriptors: Auditory Perception, Speech Communication, Acoustics, Lexicology
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Perry, Lynn K.; Custode, Stephanie A.; Fasano, Regina M.; Gonzalez, Brittney M.; Savy, Jordyn D. – Cognitive Science, 2021
One cue that may facilitate children's word learning is iconicity, or the correspondence between a word's form and meaning. Some have even proposed that iconicity in the early lexicon may serve to help children learn how to learn words, supporting the acquisition of even noniconic, or "arbitrary," word-referent associations. However,…
Descriptors: Children, Vocabulary Development, Child Caregivers, Speech
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Li, Jiangtian; Joanisse, Marc F. – Cognitive Science, 2021
Most words in natural languages are polysemous; that is, they have related but different meanings in different contexts. This one-to-many mapping of form to meaning presents a challenge to understanding how word meanings are learned, represented, and processed. Previous work has focused on solutions in which multiple static semantic…
Descriptors: Computational Linguistics, Semantics, Ambiguity (Semantics), Language Processing
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Vogelzang, Margreet; Guasti, Maria Teresa; van Rijn, Hedderik; Hendriks, Petra – Cognitive Science, 2021
Reduced forms such as the pronoun "he" provide little information about their intended meaning compared to more elaborate descriptions such as "the lead singer of Coldplay." Listeners must therefore use contextual information to recover their meaning. Across languages, there appears to be a trade-off between the informativity…
Descriptors: Children, Cognitive Processes, Language Processing, Form Classes (Languages)
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Cassani, Giovanni; Bianchi, Federico; Marelli, Marco – Cognitive Science, 2021
In this study, we use temporally aligned word embeddings and a large diachronic corpus of English to quantify language change in a data-driven, scalable way, which is grounded in language use. We show a unique and reliable relation between measures of language change and age of acquisition ("AoA") while controlling for frequency,…
Descriptors: English, Language Usage, Language Acquisition, Computational Linguistics
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Kirkland, Patrick K.; McNeil, Nicole M. – Cognitive Science, 2021
Mathematics word problems provide students with an opportunity to apply what they are learning in their mathematics classes to the world around them. However, students often neglect their knowledge of the world and provide nonsensical responses (e.g., they may answer that a school needs 12.5 buses for a field trip). This study examined if the…
Descriptors: Middle School Students, Mathematics Tests, Test Construction, Word Problems (Mathematics)
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