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Showing 1 to 15 of 751 results Save | Export
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Futrell, Richard; Gibson, Edward; Levy, Roger P. – Cognitive Science, 2020
A key component of research on human sentence processing is to characterize the processing difficulty associated with the comprehension of words in context. Models that explain and predict this difficulty can be broadly divided into two kinds, expectation-based and memory-based. In this work, we present a new model of incremental sentence…
Descriptors: Sentences, Cognitive Processes, Difficulty Level, Comprehension
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Bonawitz, Elizabeth; Shafto, Patrick; Yu, Yue; Gonzalez, Aaron; Bridgers, Sophie – Cognitive Science, 2020
Burgeoning evidence suggests that when children observe data, they use knowledge of the demonstrator's intent to augment learning. We propose that the effects of social learning may go beyond cases where children observe data, to cases where they receive no new information at all. We present a model of how simply asking a question a second time…
Descriptors: Questioning Techniques, Knowledge Level, Expectation, Parent Child Relationship
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Toon, Josef; Kukona, Anuenue – Cognitive Science, 2020
Two visual world experiments investigated the activation of semantically related concepts during the processing of environmental sounds and spoken words. Participants heard environmental sounds such as barking or spoken words such as "puppy" while viewing visual arrays with objects such as a bone (semantically related competitor) and…
Descriptors: Semantics, Acoustics, Speech Communication, Visual Stimuli
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Berent, Iris; Bat-El, Outi; Brentari, Diane; Platt, Melanie – Cognitive Science, 2020
Does knowledge of language transfer across language modalities? For example, can speakers who have had no sign language experience spontaneously project grammatical principles of English to American Sign Language (ASL) "signs"? To address this question, here, we explore a grammatical illusion. Using spoken language, we first show that a…
Descriptors: Linguistic Borrowing, Grammar, Speech Communication, American Sign Language
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Saji, Noburo; Imai, Mutsumi; Asano, Michiko – Cognitive Science, 2020
This research investigated how children build up the language-specific system of the color lexicon, examining factors that play important roles for the construction of an adult-like color lexicon. We had 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old Japanese-speaking children and adults (n = 20, 18, 19, and 19, respectively) produce names for 93 color swatches. The…
Descriptors: Language Acquisition, Color, Vocabulary, Japanese
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Jones, Samuel David; Brandt, Silke – Cognitive Science, 2020
High phonological neighborhood density has been associated with both advantages and disadvantages in early word learning. High density may support the formation and fine-tuning of new word sound memories--a process termed lexical configuration (e.g., Storkel, 2004). However, new high-density words are also more likely to be misunderstood as…
Descriptors: Emergent Literacy, Vocabulary Development, Toddlers, Phonology
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Strößner, Corina; Schurz, Gerhard – Cognitive Science, 2020
The modifier effect refers to the fact that the perceived likelihood of a property in a noun category is diminished if the noun is modified. For example, "Pigs live on farms" is rated as more likely than "Dirty pigs live on farms." The modifier effect has been demonstrated in many studies, but the underlying cognitive…
Descriptors: Abstract Reasoning, Pragmatics, Nouns, Form Classes (Languages)
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Yadav, Himanshu; Vaidya, Ashwini; Shukla, Vishakha; Husain, Samar – Cognitive Science, 2020
Much previous work has suggested that word order preferences across languages can be explained by the dependency distance minimization constraint (Ferrer-i Cancho, 2008, 2015; Hawkins, 1994). Consistent with this claim, corpus studies have shown that the average distance between a head (e.g., verb) and its dependent (e.g., noun) tends to be short…
Descriptors: Word Order, Computational Linguistics, Contrastive Linguistics, Psycholinguistics
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Lai, Wei; Rácz, Péter; Roberts, Gareth – Cognitive Science, 2020
How do speakers learn the social meaning of different linguistic variants, and what factors influence how likely a particular social-linguistic association is to be learned? It has been argued that the social meaning of more salient variants should be learned faster, and that learners' pre-existing experience of a variant will influence its…
Descriptors: Language Variation, Second Language Learning, Sociolinguistics, Prior Learning
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Foster-Hanson, Emily; Moty, Kelsey; Cardarelli, Amanda; Ocampo, John Daryl; Rhodes, Marjorie – Cognitive Science, 2020
Abstract How do people gather samples of evidence to learn about the world? Adults often prefer to sample evidence from diverse sources--for example, choosing to test a robin and a turkey to find out if something is true of birds in general. Children below age 9, however, often do not consider sample diversity, instead treating non-diverse samples…
Descriptors: Developmental Stages, Child Development, Age Differences, Evidence
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Divjak, Dagmar; Milin, Petar – Cognitive Science, 2020
While the effects of pattern learning on language processing are well known, the way in which pattern learning shapes exploratory behavior has long gone unnoticed. We report on the way in which individual differences in statistical pattern learning affect performance in the domain of language along multiple dimensions. Analyzing data from healthy…
Descriptors: Statistics, Pattern Recognition, Behavior, Individual Characteristics
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Pagán, Ascensión; Nation, Kate – Cognitive Science, 2019
We examined whether variations in contextual diversity, spacing, and retrieval practice influenced how well adults learned new words from reading experience. Eye movements were recorded as adults read novel words embedded in sentences. In the learning phase, unfamiliar words were presented either in the same sentence repeated four times (same…
Descriptors: Reading Processes, Vocabulary Development, Context Effect, Adults
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Sakarias, Maria; Flecken, Monique – Cognitive Science, 2019
We study how people attend to and memorize endings of events that differ in the degree to which objects in them are affected by an action: "Resultative" events show objects that undergo a visually salient change in state during the course of the event (peeling a potato), and "non-resultative" events involve objects that undergo…
Descriptors: Memory, Grammar, Finno Ugric Languages, Indo European Languages
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Orrantia, Josetxu; Muñez, David; Matilla, Laura; Sanchez, Rosario; San Romualdo, Sara; Verschaffel, Lieven – Cognitive Science, 2019
A growing body of research has shown that symbolic number processing relates to individual differences in mathematics. However, it remains unclear which mechanisms of symbolic number processing are crucial--accessing underlying magnitude representation of symbols (i.e., symbol-magnitude associations), processing relative order of symbols (i.e.,…
Descriptors: Numeracy, Numbers, Symbols (Mathematics), Mathematics Instruction
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Sullivan, Jessica; Boucher, Juliana; Kiefer, Reina J.; Williams, Katherine; Barner, David – Cognitive Science, 2019
Word learning depends critically on the use of linguistic context to constrain the likely meanings of words. However, the mechanisms by which children infer word meaning from linguistic context are still poorly understood. In this study, we asked whether adults (n = 58) and 2- to 6-year-old children (n = 180) use discourse coherence relations…
Descriptors: Cues, Linguistic Theory, Discourse Analysis, Toddlers
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