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Showing 1 to 15 of 306 results Save | Export
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Jiali Song; Benjamin Wolfe – Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2024
The low prevalence effect (LPE) is a cognitive limitation commonly found in visual search tasks, in which observers miss rare targets. Drivers looking for road hazards are also subject to the LPE. However, not all road hazards are equal; a paper bag floating down the road is much less dangerous than a rampaging moose. Here, we asked whether…
Descriptors: Traffic Safety, Motor Vehicles, Incidence, Identification
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Kay L. Ritchie; Daniel J. Carragher; Josh P. Davis; Katie Read; Ryan E. Jenkins; Eilidh Noyes; Katie L. H. Gray; Peter J. B. Hancock – Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2024
Mask wearing has been required in various settings since the outbreak of COVID-19, and research has shown that identity judgements are difficult for faces wearing masks. To date, however, the majority of experiments on face identification with masked faces tested humans and computer algorithms using images with superimposed masks rather than…
Descriptors: Artificial Intelligence, Recognition (Psychology), Clothing, Health Behavior
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Ellie Hewer; Michael B. Lewis – Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2024
Studies show that surgical face masks can have both positive and negative effects on attractiveness. Race has been implicated as a moderator of the size of this mask effect. Here, the moderating effects of expression, race and gender are explored. The mask effect was more positive for males than for females, for neutral faces than for smiling…
Descriptors: COVID-19, Pandemics, Public Health, Hygiene
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Luke Strickland; Simon Farrell; Micah K. Wilson; Jack Hutchinson; Shayne Loft – Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2024
In a range of settings, human operators make decisions with the assistance of automation, the reliability of which can vary depending upon context. Currently, the processes by which humans track the level of reliability of automation are unclear. In the current study, we test cognitive models of learning that could potentially explain how humans…
Descriptors: Automation, Reliability, Man Machine Systems, Learning Processes
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Sümeyra Tosun – Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2024
Machine translation (MT) is the automated process of translating text between different languages, encompassing a wide range of language pairs. This study focuses on non-professional bilingual speakers of Turkish and English, aiming to assess their ability to discern accuracy in machine translations and their preferences regarding MT. A particular…
Descriptors: Bilingualism, Turkish, English (Second Language), Second Language Learning
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Aoqi Li; Johan Hulleman; Jeremy M. Wolfe – Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2024
In any visual search task in the lab or in the world, observers will make errors. Those errors can be categorized as "deterministic": If you miss this target in this display once, you will definitely miss it again. Alternatively, errors can be "stochastic", occurring randomly with some probability from trial to trial.…
Descriptors: Visual Perception, Visual Stimuli, Error Patterns, Probability
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Chenxi Jiang; Zhenzhong Chen; Jeremy M. Wolfe – Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2024
Previous work has demonstrated similarities and differences between aerial and terrestrial image viewing. Aerial scene categorization, a pivotal visual processing task for gathering geoinformation, heavily depends on rotation-invariant information. Aerial image-centered research has revealed effects of low-level features on performance of various…
Descriptors: Geography, Photography, Classification, Data Collection
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Connor M. Hults; Yifan Ding; Geneva G. Xie; Rishi Raja; William Johnson; Alexis Lee; Daniel J. Simons – Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2024
People often fail to notice unexpected stimuli when their attention is directed elsewhere. Most studies of this "inattentional blindness" have been conducted using laboratory tasks with little connection to real-world performance. Medical case reports document examples of missed findings in radiographs and CT images, unintentionally…
Descriptors: Medicine, Negligence, Accident Prevention, Health Services
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Marc Brysbaert – Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2024
Experimental psychology is witnessing an increase in research on individual differences, which requires the development of new tasks that can reliably assess variations among participants. To do this, cognitive researchers need statistical methods that many researchers have not learned during their training. The lack of expertise can pose…
Descriptors: Experimental Psychology, Individual Differences, Statistical Analysis, Task Analysis
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Carlos J. Desme; Anthony S. Dick; Timothy B. Hayes; Shannon M. Pruden – Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2024
Spatial ability is defined as a cognitive or intellectual skill used to represent, transform, generate, and recall information of an object or the environment. Individual differences across spatial tasks have been strongly linked to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) interest and success. Several variables have been proposed…
Descriptors: Spatial Ability, Individual Differences, Affective Behavior, Self Esteem
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Alexis Topete; Chuanxiuyue He; John Protzko; Jonathan Schooler; Mary Hegarty – Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2024
Given how commonly GPS is now used in everyday navigation, it is surprising how little research has been dedicated to investigating variations in its use and how such variations may relate to navigation ability. The present study investigated general GPS dependence, how people report using GPS in various navigational scenarios, and the…
Descriptors: Spatial Ability, Navigation, Young Adults, Anxiety
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Brooklyn J. Corbett; Jason M. Tangen; Rachel A. Searston; Matthew B. Thompson – Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2024
Expert fingerprint examiners demonstrate impressive feats of memory that may support their accuracy when making high-stakes identification decisions. Understanding the interplay between expertise and memory is therefore critical. Across two experiments, we tested fingerprint examiners and novices on their visual short-term memory for fingerprints.…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Police, Novices, Expertise
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Heather Kleider-Offutt; Beth Stevens; Laura Mickes; Stewart Boogert – Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2024
Artificial intelligence is already all around us, and its usage will only increase. Knowing its capabilities is critical. A facial recognition system (FRS) is a tool for law enforcement during suspect searches and when presenting photos to eyewitnesses for identification. However, there are no comparisons between eyewitness and FRS accuracy using…
Descriptors: Artificial Intelligence, Race, Recognition (Psychology), Video Technology
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Ujué Agudo; Karlos G. Liberal; Miren Arrese; Helena Matute – Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2024
Automated decision-making is becoming increasingly common in the public sector. As a result, political institutions recommend the presence of humans in these decision-making processes as a safeguard against potentially erroneous or biased algorithmic decisions. However, the scientific literature on human-in-the-loop performance is not conclusive…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Spanish Speaking, Artificial Intelligence, Court Litigation
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Esther K. Diekhof; Laura Deinert; Judith K. Keller; Juliane Degner – Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2024
Protective face masks were one of the central measures to counteract viral transmission in the COVID-19 pandemic. Prior research indicates that face masks impact various aspects of social cognition, such as emotion recognition and social evaluation. Whether protective masks also influence social avoidance behavior is less clear. Our project…
Descriptors: Informed Consent, COVID-19, Pandemics, Social Behavior
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