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Vasilyeva, Marina; Casey, Beth M.; Dearing, Eric; Ganley, Colleen M. – Cognition and Instruction, 2009
In this research, we examined overall performance and gender differences in measurement skills in elementary-school students from low-income families. In Study 1, accuracy and error patterns were analyzed in a large sample of fourth-graders; in Study 2 error patterns and strategy usage were examined with a smaller sample of fourth-graders. Study 1…
Descriptors: Elementary School Students, Grade 4, Spatial Ability, Cognitive Processes
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Kyza, Eleni A. – Cognition and Instruction, 2009
The examination of alternative hypotheses can initiate students into scientific practices and equip them with scientific literacy skills that will help them participate in ongoing debates involving complex socio-scientific problems. Hypothesis testing, in which the examination of alternative hypotheses is situated, has received much attention in…
Descriptors: Middle School Students, Student Attitudes, Hypothesis Testing, Scientific Literacy
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Martin, Lee; Schwartz, Daniel L. – Cognition and Instruction, 2009
An important element of adaptive expertise involves stepping away from a routine to retool one's knowledge or environment. The current study investigated two forms of this adaptive pattern: fault-driven adaptations, which are reactions to a difficulty, and prospective adaptations, which are proactive reformulations. Graduate and undergraduate…
Descriptors: Undergraduate Students, Graduate Students, Adjustment (to Environment), Comparative Analysis
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Greeno, James G. – Cognition and Instruction, 2009
Son and Goldstone (2009) provided orienting activities intended to increase personal engagement, and these activities reduced participants' transfer based on concepts of signal detectability theory. I offer a theoretical interpretation that differs from theirs. First, instead of assuming that activity is contextualized in some conditions and not…
Descriptors: Learner Engagement, Cognitive Structures, Student Attitudes, Epistemology
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Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Phelps, Fiona G.; Calderwood, Lesley – Cognition and Instruction, 2009
Looking away from an interlocutor's face during demanding cognitive activity can help adults and children answer challenging mental arithmetic and verbal-reasoning questions (Glenberg, Schroeder, & Robertson, 1998; Phelps, Doherty-Sneddon, & Warnock, 2006). While such "gaze aversion" (GA) is used far less by 5-year-old school children, its use…
Descriptors: Primary Education, Mental Computation, Cognitive Processes, Arithmetic
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Abrahamson, Dor – Cognition and Instruction, 2009
This article reports on a case study from a design-based research project that investigated how students make sense of the disciplinary tools they are taught to use, and specifically, what personal, interpersonal, and material resources support this process. The probability topic of binomial distribution was selected due to robust documentation of…
Descriptors: Intuition, Grade 4, Probability, Thinking Skills
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Gijlers, Hannie; de Jong, Ton – Cognition and Instruction, 2009
This study investigates how collaborative knowledge construction within an inquiry learning environment can be assisted with scaffolds that aim to support students' hypothesis generation process. Sixty-six students on a university preparatory track worked collaboratively on a kinematics task. The instructional goal was to develop students'…
Descriptors: Opinions, Prior Learning, Cooperative Learning, Interaction
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Inglis, Matthew; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo – Cognition and Instruction, 2009
Three experiments are reported that investigate the extent to which an authority figure influences the level of persuasion undergraduate students and research-active mathematicians invest in mathematical arguments. We demonstrate that, in some situations, both students and researchers rate arguments as being more persuasive when they are…
Descriptors: Undergraduate Students, Persuasive Discourse, Mathematics, Professional Personnel
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Scherr, Rachel E.; Hammer, David – Cognition and Instruction, 2009
The concept of framing from anthropology and sociolinguistics is useful for understanding student reasoning. For example, a student may frame a learning activity as an opportunity for sensemaking or as an assignment to fill out a worksheet. The student's framing affects what she notices, what knowledge she accesses, and how she thinks to act. We…
Descriptors: Student Behavior, Sociolinguistics, Learning Activities, Anthropology
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Son, Ji Y.; Goldstone, Robert L. – Cognition and Instruction, 2009
Instruction abstracted from specific and concrete examples is frequently criticized for ignoring the context-dependent and perspectival nature of learning (e.g., Bruner, 1962, 1966; Greeno, 1997). Yet, in the effort to create personally interesting learning contexts, cognitive consequences have often been ignored. To examine what kinds of…
Descriptors: Context Effect, Perspective Taking, Form Classes (Languages), Grammar
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Hurley, Eric A.; Allen, Brenda A.; Boykin, A. Wade – Cognition and Instruction, 2009
This study tests the hypothesis that cultural differences in group orientation predict an interaction between the student variable--ethnicity--and a learning context variable--reward structure--on math performance after group learning. One hundred and thirty-two African-American and European-American female and male fourth and fifth grade students…
Descriptors: Ethnicity, Mathematics Achievement, Program Effectiveness, Interaction
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Nathan, Mitchell J.; Kim, Suyeon – Cognition and Instruction, 2009
Using the perspective of instructional conversation, we investigated how one teacher regulated student participation and conceptual reasoning in the middle-school mathematics classroom. We examined the elicitations--questions and provocative statements--made by the teacher over a four-day algebra lesson. Analyses showed how the teacher…
Descriptors: Student Attitudes, Student Participation, Middle Schools, Mathematics Instruction
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Mantzicopoulos, Panayota; Samarapungavan, Ala; Patrick, Helen – Cognition and Instruction, 2009
We examine kindergarten children's emerging social meanings about science as a function of their participation in integrated science inquiry and literacy activities associated with the Scientific Literacy Project (SLP). We describe changes in 123 SLP kindergarten children's narrative accounts of learning science in school during three different…
Descriptors: Scientific Literacy, Young Children, Kindergarten, Science Programs
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Radinsky, Josh – Cognition and Instruction, 2008
Learning science includes learning to argue with "inscriptions": images used to symbolize information persuasively. This study examined sixth-graders learning to invest inscriptions with representational status, in a geographic information system (GIS)-based science investigation. Learning to reason with inscriptions was studied in emergent…
Descriptors: Information Systems, Cognitive Development, Plate Tectonics, Science Instruction
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Windschitl, Mark; Thompson, Jessica; Braaten, Melissa – Cognition and Instruction, 2008
To test whether epistemically unproblematic ways of thinking and talking about science could be transformed during preservice teacher training, we designed a system of learning activities based on a set of "heuristics for progressive disciplinary discourse" (HPDD). The HPDD outline six design principles of learning environments where the aim is to…
Descriptors: Preservice Teachers, Practicums, Science Teachers, Teaching Methods
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