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Brodsky, Jessica E.; Bergson, Zachary; Chen, Ming; Hayward, Elizabeth O.; Plass, Jan L.; Homer, Bruce D. – Child Development, 2023
Executive functions' (EF) role in adolescents' advanced theory of mind (aToM) was examined. In Study 1, adolescents (N = 189 in 2017, M[subscript age] = 13.1 years, 55.6% female from racially/ethnically diverse schools) completed the Flexibility and Automaticity of Social Cognition task (FASC), and shifting and inhibition measures. Study 2…
Descriptors: Adolescents, Theory of Mind, Executive Function, Social Cognition
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Osborne, Kimberly R.; Walsdorf, Ashley A.; Smith-Bynum, Mia A.; Redig, Samantha; Brinkley, Dawn; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien – Child Development, 2023
Guided by the Theory of Racial Socialization in Action (TRSA; Smith-Bynum in press), this study examined observed caregiver-provided ethnic-racial socialization in response to a school-based discriminatory dilemma. Forty-five Black and 36 Latinx caregivers (88% mothers) with low-income and their children (M[subscript age] = 11.09, SD = 0.29; 46.3%…
Descriptors: Racism, Socialization, Racial Relations, Learner Engagement
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Karatas, Savas; Eckstein, Katharina; Noack, Peter; Rubini, Monica; Crocetti, Elisabetta – Child Development, 2023
This study investigated the associations between cultural diversity approaches endorsed by teachers and adolescents' positive and negative intergroup contact in schools. Participants were 984 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 14.66; 62.7% female; 24.8% ethnic minority) involved in a three-wave longitudinal study between 2019 and 2020. Results…
Descriptors: Adolescents, Cultural Differences, Ethnic Diversity, Cultural Influences
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Feng, Yan; Peng, Gang – Child Development, 2023
Although children develop categorical speech perception at a very young age, the maturation process remains unclear. A cross-sectional study in Mandarin-speaking 4-, 6-, and 10-year-old children, 14-year-old adolescents, and adults (n = 104, 56 males, all Asians from mainland China) was conducted to investigate the development of categorical…
Descriptors: Speech Communication, Mandarin Chinese, Phonemes, Phonemic Awareness
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Sun, Xiaoran; Haydel, K. Farish; Matheson, Donna; Desai, Manisha; Robinson, Thomas N. – Child Development, 2023
This prospective, longitudinal study examined associations between whether and when children first acquire a mobile phone and their adjustment measures, among low-income Latinx children. Children (N = 263; 55% female; baseline M[subscript age] = 9.5) and their parents were assessed annually for 5 years from 2012. Children first acquired a mobile…
Descriptors: Telecommunications, Handheld Devices, Ownership, Low Income Groups
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Orvell, Ariana; Elli, Giulia; Umscheid, Valerie; Simmons, Ella; Kross, Ethan; Gelman, Susan A. – Child Development, 2023
A critical skill of childhood is learning social norms. We examine whether the generic pronouns "you" and "we," which frame information as applying to people in general rather than to a specific individual, facilitate this process. In one pre-registered experiment conducted online between 2020 and 2021, children 4- to…
Descriptors: Child Development, Form Classes (Languages), Decision Making, Social Behavior
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Savic, Olivera; Unger, Layla; Sloutsky, Vladimir M. – Child Development, 2023
With development knowledge becomes organized according to semantic links, including early-developing associative (e.g., juicy-apple) and gradually developing taxonomic links (e.g., apple-pear). Word co-occurrence regularities may foster these links: Associative links may form from direct co-occurrence (e.g., juicy-apple), and taxonomic links from…
Descriptors: Semantics, Language Acquisition, Child Development, Taxonomy
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Wade, Mark; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Buzzell, George A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A. – Child Development, 2023
We examined whether family care following early-life deprivation buffered the association between stressful life events (SLEs) and executive functioning (EF) in adolescence. In early childhood, 136 institutionally reared children were randomly assigned to foster care or care-as-usual; 72 never-institutionalized children served as a comparison…
Descriptors: Stress Variables, Executive Function, Foster Care, Child Development
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Langenhoff, Antonia F.; Engelmann, Jan M.; Srinivasan, Mahesh – Child Development, 2023
Two preregistered experiments (N = 218) investigated children's developing ability to respond reasonably to disagreement. U.S. children aged 4-9, and adults (50% female, mostly white) formed an initial belief, and were confronted with the belief of a disagreeing other, whose evidence was weaker, stronger than, or equal to participants' evidence.…
Descriptors: Children, Beliefs, Adults, Females
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Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Xiao, Sonya Xinyue; Xu, Jingyi; Berger, Rebecca H.; Pierotti, Sarah L.; Laible, Deborah J.; Carlo, Gustavo; Gal-Szabo, Diana E.; Janssen, Jayley; Fraser, Ashley; Xu, Xiaoye; Wang, Wen; Lopez, Jamie – Child Development, 2023
Relations among White (non-Latinx) children's empathy-related responding, prosocial behaviors, and racial attitudes toward White and Black peers were examined. In 2017, 190 (54% boys) White 5- to 9-year-old children (M = 7.09 years, SD = 0.94) watched a series of videos that depicted social rejection of either a White or Black child.…
Descriptors: Young Children, Racial Attitudes, Whites, African Americans
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Chen, Xinyin; Zhou, Jiaxi; Li, Dan; Liu, Junsheng; Dai, Yan; Zhou, Tong – Child Development, 2023
This 2-year longitudinal study examined relations between enjoyment of learning in Chinese and mathematics, two major subjects in Chinese schools, and indexes of school performance. The participants included 1041 students (501 boys) initially in third, fifth, and seventh grades (mean age = 10.49 years) in China. Data on enjoyment of Chinese and…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Chinese, Grade 3, Grade 5
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Cottrell, Samantha; Torres, Eric; Harris, Paul L.; Ronfard, Samuel – Child Development, 2023
We investigated children's information seeking in response to a surprising claim (Study 1, N = 109, 54 Female, Range = 4.02-6.94 years, 49% White, 21% Mixed Ethnicity, 19% Southeast Asian, infStudy 2, N = 154, 74 Female, Range = 4.09-7.99, 50% White, 20% Mixed Ethnicity, 17% Southeast Asian, September 2020-December 2020). Relative to younger…
Descriptors: Children, Information Seeking, Adults, Trust (Psychology)
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Wan, Sirui; Lauermann, Fani; Bailey, Drew H.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S. – Child Development, 2023
Dimensional comparisons (i.e., comparing own performances across domains) may drive an increasing differentiation in students' math and verbal self-concepts over time, but little longitudinal research has directly tested this assumption. Using cross-sequential data spanning Grades 1-12 (N = 1069, ages 6-18, 92% White, 2% Black, 51% female,…
Descriptors: Developmental Stages, Self Concept, Student Development, Elementary School Students
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van der Kleij, Sanne W.; Burgess, Adrian P.; Ricketts, Jessie; Shapiro, Laura R. – Child Development, 2023
We examined the relation between socioeconomic status (SES), vocabulary, and reading in middle childhood, during the transition from primary (elementary) to secondary (high) school. Children (N = 279, 163 girls) completed assessments of everyday and curriculum-related vocabulary, (non)word reading, and reading comprehension at five timepoints from…
Descriptors: Elementary School Students, Student Promotion, Socioeconomic Status, Secondary Education
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Osterhaus, Christopher; Koerber, Susanne – Child Development, 2023
This 6-wave longitudinal study (2014-2018) of 161 German 5- to 10-year-olds from a midsized city and rural area in southern Germany (89 females, 72 males; predominantly White; mostly middle class) found that scientific-reasoning abilities first develop at 6 years. Abilities were highly stable, with the kindergarten score predicting 25% of…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Kindergarten, Young Children, Elementary School Students
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