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Males, Mike – Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, 2016
This Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) fact sheet shows that, in 2015, arrests of young people under age 25 dropped below 2014 levels and continue a decades-long trend of decline. While the causes of these declines are unknown, falling youth arrests rates coupled with decreased youth incarceration suggest that high rates of…
Descriptors: Youth, Young Adults, Crime, Juvenile Justice
Ajmani, Nisha; Webster, Erica – Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, 2016
From its inception in 1891 to present day, California's state youth corrections system has been mired in violence and abuse. In 1914, IQ testing and eugenics at state juvenile facilities resulted in the forced sterilization of poor, primarily non-white youth. In 1939, the suspicious suicide of a 13-year-old boy, the maltreatment of Latino youth,…
Descriptors: Juvenile Justice, Mental Health, Violence, Access to Health Care
Males, Mike; Macallair, Daniel; Corcoran, Megan Doyle – Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, 2006
With serious problems plaguing California's juvenile justice system, the efficacy of incapacitating juveniles in the Division of Juvenile Justice (DJJ) correctional facilities must be reexamined. California's youth incarceration patterns offer an opportunity to analyze the validity of incapacitation theory as it applies to young people. Under…
Descriptors: Youth, Juvenile Justice, Counties, Correctional Institutions
Shelden, Randall G. – Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, 2005
Over 180 years ago the first of a long line of prisons specifically designed for young offenders was created in New York City. Called the New York House of Refuge, its creators called it a "school." The State Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, in its famous decision in "Ex Parte Crouse," stated that the aims of the house of refuge…
Descriptors: Correctional Institutions, Juvenile Justice, Children, Youth
Nadel-Hayes, Sele; Macallair, Daniel – Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, 2005
Youth corrections in California is at a crossroads. In response to the near universal recognition of California's failed approach to youth corrections, Governor Schwarzenegger, with support from the California Legislature, has launched one of the largest restructuring initiatives of youth corrections in state history. Reforms currently underway…
Descriptors: State History, Safety, Technical Assistance, Counties
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Shelden, Randall G. – Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, 2004
In the early 19th century, the famous Frenchman Alexis de Tocqueville spent a considerable amount of time touring America and writing about what he saw. He is, of course, most famous for his book Democracy in America (1961), but he also wrote, along with a fellow Frenchman Gustav de Beaumont, a book called On the Penitentiary System in the United…
Descriptors: Punishment, Juvenile Justice, Crime, Correctional Institutions