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Winters, Marcus A. – Center for State and Local Leadership, 2012
Public school teachers in the United States are famously difficult to dismiss. The reason is simple: after three years on the job, most receive tenure--after a brief and subjective evaluation process in which few receive negative ratings. In recent years, some school districts have experimented with changes in tenure rules. They seek the power to…
Descriptors: Public School Teachers, Teacher Effectiveness, Teacher Dismissal, Barriers
Winters, Marcus A. – Center for State and Local Leadership, 2012
State and municipal policymakers are increasingly addressing the practice of social promotion in schools--moving children along to the next grade whether or not they have mastered the curriculum--by mandating test-based grade promotion. This paper draws conclusions about the effects of a policy limiting social promotion. To do so, it employs a…
Descriptors: Social Promotion, Grade 3, Grade 4, Grade 5
DiSalvo, Daniel – Center for State and Local Leadership, 2012
This November, California voters must decide two policy questions of great concern to public-sector unions. One is a tax hike to stave off further cuts to state spending (there are two versions on the ballot with a chance of passing). The other is a "paycheck protection" measure that would ban the practice of unions' deducting money from…
Descriptors: Educational Finance, Activism, Unions, Public Sector
DiSalvo, Daniel – Center for State and Local Leadership, 2012
At first glance, public-sector labor unions are just one of many types of organizations that participate in the political process. However, these unions differ significantly from other interest groups made up of individual citizens or non-labor organizations. Because their members' interests are tied to government policy, these unions are more…
Descriptors: Unions, Public Sector, Fiscal Capacity, Political Attitudes
Barro, Josh – Center for State and Local Leadership, 2011
In 2010, the pension plans of state and local governments came under increased scrutiny in response to their generally weak financial positions and mounting costs to taxpayers. By some measures, these funds are as much as $3 trillion short of the assets they would need to cover the promises they have made to government workers and retirees.…
Descriptors: Federal Government, State Government, Local Government, Government Employees