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ERIC Number: EJ930370
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2010-Dec
Pages: 27
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0008-4506
The Occurrence and Effectiveness of Spontaneous Focus on Form in Adult ESL Classrooms
Nassaji, Hossein
Canadian Modern Language Review, v66 n6 p907-933 Dec 2010
In recent years, researchers have become increasingly interested in the notion of spontaneous focus on form (FonF) (i.e., attention to linguistic forms that arise incidentally during meaningful communication). Previous research has indicated that such FonF is beneficial for L2 learning. However, this research has focused mainly on reactive FonF, with relatively little investigation into pre-emptive FonF. This paper presents findings from a large-scale, classroom-based study that examined the role of both reactive and pre-emptive FonF in second-language development as measured by tailor-made, student-specific post-tests. Data from 54 hours of classroom interaction within seven intact ESL classes at three levels of language proficiency revealed that both reactive and pre-emptive FonF occurred. However, pre-emptive FonF led to higher individualized post-test scores than did reactive FonF. Furthermore, the amount, type, and effectiveness of FonF were strongly related to the learners' level of language proficiency. (Contains 4 notes and 8 tables.)
University of Toronto Press. 5201 Dufferin Street, Toronto, ON M3H 5T8, Canada. Tel: 416-667-7810; Fax: 800-221-9985; Fax: 416-667-7881; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Adult Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: New Zealand