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Newton, Paul E.; Shaw, Stuart D. – Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 2016
The ability to convey shared meaning with minimal ambiguity is highly desirable for technical terms within disciplines and professions. Unfortunately, there is no widespread professional consensus over the meaning of the word "validity" as it pertains to educational and psychological testing. After illustrating the nature and extent of…
Descriptors: Test Validity, Validity, Ambiguity (Semantics), Psychological Testing
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Markus, Keith A. – Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 2016
Justification of testing practice involves moving from one state of knowledge about the test to another. Theories of test validity can (a) focus on the beginning of the process, (b) focus on the end, or (c) encompass the entire process. Analyses of four case studies test and illustrate three claims: (a) restrictions on validity entail a supplement…
Descriptors: Vocabulary, Test Validity, Case Studies, Test Construction
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Kane, Michael T. – Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 2016
How we choose to use a term depends on what we want to do with it. If "validity" is to be used to support a score interpretation, validation would require an analysis of the plausibility of that interpretation. If validity is to be used to support score uses, validation would require an analysis of the appropriateness of the proposed…
Descriptors: Test Validity, Test Interpretation, Test Use, Scores
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Cizek, Gregory J. – Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 2016
Advances in validity theory and alacrity in validation practice have suffered because the term "validity" has been used to refer to two incompatible concerns: (1) the degree of support for specified interpretations of test scores (i.e. intended score meaning) and (2) the degree of support for specified applications (i.e. intended test…
Descriptors: Scores, Definitions, Evaluation Utilization, Data Interpretation
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Sireci, Stephen G. – Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 2016
A misconception exists that validity may refer only to the "interpretation" of test scores and not to the "uses" of those scores. The development and evolution of validity theory illustrate test score interpretation was a primary focus in the earliest days of modern testing, and that validating interpretations derived from test…
Descriptors: Test Validity, Misconceptions, Evaluation Utilization, Data Interpretation
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Moss, Pamela A. – Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 2016
The conventional focus of validity in educational measurement has been on intended interpretations and uses of test scores. Empirical studies of test use by teachers, administrators and policy-makers show that actual interpretations and uses of test scores in context are invariably shaped by local users' questions, which frequently require…
Descriptors: Test Validity, Evaluation Utilization, Educational Assessment, Scores
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Zumbo, Bruno D.; Hubley, Anita M. – Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 2016
Ultimately, measures in research, testing, assessment and evaluation are used, or have implications, for ranking, intervention, feedback, decision-making or policy purposes. Explicit recognition of this fact brings the often-ignored and sometimes maligned concept of consequences to the fore. Given that measures have personal and social…
Descriptors: Testing Programs, Testing Problems, Measurement Techniques, Student Evaluation
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Koretz, Daniel – Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 2016
Daniel Koretz is the Henry Lee Shattuck Professor of Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. His research focuses on educational assessment and policy, particularly the effects of high-stakes testing on educational practice and the validity of score gains. He is the author of "Measuring Up: What Educational Testing Really Tells…
Descriptors: Test Validity, Definitions, Evidence, Relevance (Education)
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Slaney, Kathleen L. – Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 2016
Kathleen Slaney, associate professor in the History, Quantitative and Theoretical Psychology stream in the Department of Psychology at Simon Fraser University, comments on three issues she considers central to a fruitful discussion of how "validity" should be used in the context of testing.
Descriptors: Test Validity, Educational Practices, Praxis, Evaluation Criteria
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Shepard, Lorrie A. – Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 2016
The AERA, APA, NCME Standards define validity as "the degree to which evidence and theory support the interpretations of test scores for proposed uses of tests". A century of disagreement about validity does not mean that there has not been substantial progress. This consensus definition brings together interpretations and use so that it…
Descriptors: Test Validity, Standards, Test Theory, Evidence
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Gafni, Naomi – Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 2016
Naomi Gafni, director of Research and Development, National Institute for Testing and Evaluation, Jerusalem, Israel, has devoted a substantial part of her career to the development of admissions tests and other educational tests and to the investigation of their validity. As such she is keenly aware of the complexities involved in this process.…
Descriptors: Test Validity, Test Interpretation, Test Use, Test Construction
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Twing, Jon S. – Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 2016
This special issue of "Assessment in Education" contains the type of debate needed about what Cizek (2015) calls a "… lingering flaw in the concept of validity…." Some practitioners might not agree that the current theory of validation is flawed. Specifically, the debate Jon Twing is referencing concerns the role of the…
Descriptors: Test Validity, Misconceptions, Evidence, Scores
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Borsboom, Denny; Wijsen, Lisa D. – Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 2016
The distinction between facts and moral values is highly desirable: science and politics should keep to their own territories. Traditionally speaking, science can be seen as an ivory tower, which attempts to do its job in isolation of external influences. Politics does not mandate methods of scientific research or standards of justification;…
Descriptors: Validity, Sciences, Politics, Definitions
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Geisinger, Kurt F. – Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 2016
The six primary papers in this issue of "Assessment in Education" emphasise a single primary point: the concept of validity is a complex one. Essentially, validity is a collective noun. That is, just as a group of players may be called a team and a group of geese a flock, so too does validity represent a variety of processes and…
Descriptors: Test Validity, Definitions, Standards, Test Interpretation
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Li, Hongli – Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 2016
Drawing on the programme for international student assessment 2009 US data-set, this study examines the relationship between formative assessment and students' reading achievement using a structural equation modelling approach. We find that formative assessment is positively related to students' reading achievement directly and indirectly (through…
Descriptors: Achievement Tests, Foreign Countries, International Assessment, Secondary School Students
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