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ERIC Number: EJ1000095
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012
Pages: 25
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1041-679X
Relationship between Reported Out-of-Class English Use and Proficiency Gains in English
Baker-Smemoe, Wendy; Cundick, Denisa K.; Evans, Norman; Henrichsen, Lynn; Dewey, Dan P.
Applied Language Learning, v22 n1-2 p21-45 2012
This study investigated the relationship between out-of-class L2 use and proficiency gains in learners of English as a second language (ESL) in an intensive English language program. In contrast to previous studies on this topic, which have found weak, non-existent or even inverse relationships between out-of-class language experience and L2 proficiency gains, this study took place over a longer period of time (31 weeks), involved a larger number of participants (61 ESL learners from 12 different language backgrounds at four proficiency levels), and found a statistically significant connection between out-of-class language use and proficiency gains. Participants took a proficiency pre-test and post-test and responded to a questionnaire designed to elicit information about out-of-class language use. In addition, six learners participated in semi-structured interviews. Data obtained from the questionnaire and interviews were compared to gains in proficiency between the pre-test and post-test. The results corroborate the "common sense" connection between L2 out-of-class use and proficiency development. They also identify the types of out-of-class language use that are most strongly connected with L2 proficiency gains. (Contains 3 tables and 1 note.)
Defense Language Institute, Foreign Language Center. Academic Journals, 1759 Lewis Road Suite 142, Presidio of Monterey, Monterey, CA 93944-5006. Tel: 831-242-5638; Fax: 831-242-5850; e-mail:; Website:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Utah