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Riggan, Kirsten A.; Nyquist, Christina; Michie, Marsha; Allyse, Megan A. – American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2020
Researchers are investigating new technologies to mitigate or prevent symptoms of Down syndrome (DS), including chromosome silencing and pharmacotherapy. We surveyed parents of individuals with DS to assess their opinions on two hypothetical scenarios describing prenatal chromosome silencing and pediatric pharmacological intervention to improve…
Descriptors: Down Syndrome, Genetics, Prevention, Symptoms (Individual Disorders)
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Bhattacharyya, Anita – American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2020
Our bodies are made up of over 250 specific cell types, and all initially arise from stem cells during embryonic development. Stem cells have two characteristics that make them unique: (1) they are pluripotent, meaning that they can differentiate into all cell types of the body, and (2) they are capable of self-renewal to generate more of…
Descriptors: Down Syndrome, Brain, Individual Development, Intellectual Disability
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Capone, George T. – American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2020
Translational research means different things to different people. In the biomedical research community, translational research is the process of applying knowledge from basic biology and clinical trials to techniques and tools that address critical medical needs such as new therapies. Translational research then is a "bench to bedside"…
Descriptors: Down Syndrome, Research, Genetic Disorders, Physiology
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Haydar, Tarik F. – American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2020
One of the overriding hopes of the Down syndrome (DS) research community is to arrive at a better understanding of how trisomy 21 affects brain development and function, and that doing so will improve quality of life and independence for people with DS. In searching for the underlying causes of intellectual disability in DS, researchers and…
Descriptors: Down Syndrome, Medical Research, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Genetic Disorders
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Handen, Benjamin L. – American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2020
Adults with Down syndrome are at high risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), with most individuals developing clinical dementia by their late 60s. This increased risk for AD has been attributed, at least in part, to triplication and overexpression of the gene for amyloid precursor protein (APP) on chromosome 21, leading to elevated levels of amyloid…
Descriptors: Adults, Down Syndrome, Alzheimers Disease, At Risk Persons
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Hill, Elizabeth A.; Sawatari, Hiroyuki; Nishizaka, Mari K.; Fairley, Donna M.; Chishaki, Akiko; Funakoshi, Kouta; Riha, Renata L.; Ando, Shin-ichi – American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2020
Small studies in Western populations report a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults with Down syndrome. To date, ethnic differences have not been explored. A questionnaire sent to 2,752 adults with Down syndrome aged 16 years in Scotland and Japan (789 valid responses) estimated OSA prevalence based on reported symptoms.…
Descriptors: Sleep, Symptoms (Individual Disorders), Incidence, Adults
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Diaz, Keith M. – American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2020
It is unclear whether children with Down syndrome have differing physical activity and sedentary behavior levels compared to typical children. This study addressed this evidence gap in a national sample. Physical activity/sedentary behavior were ascertained by parental report. Findings highlighted that children with Down syndrome were less likely…
Descriptors: Health Behavior, Life Style, Physical Activity Level, Children
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Faught, Gayle G.; Conners, Frances A. – American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2019
Sustained attention (SA) and short-term memory (STM) contribute to language function in Down syndrome (DS). We proposed models in which relations of SA to language in DS are mediated by STM. Thirty-seven youth with DS aged 10-22 years (M = 15.59) completed SA, STM, and language tasks. Cross-sectional mediation analyses were run with the…
Descriptors: Models, Correlation, Attention, Short Term Memory
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Joyce, Anna; Hill, Catherine M.; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara – American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2019
Sleep plays a key role in the consolidation of newly acquired information and skills into long term memory. Children with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS) frequently experience sleep problems, abnormal sleep architecture, and difficulties with learning; thus, we predicted that children from these clinical populations would demonstrate…
Descriptors: Sleep, Cognitive Processes, Down Syndrome, Genetic Disorders
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Jones, Harrison N.; Crisp, Kelly D.; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; Mahler, Leslie; Risoli, Thomas, Jr.; Jones, Carlee W.; Kishnani, Priya – American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2019
Speech disorders occur commonly in individuals with Down syndrome (DS), although data regarding the auditory-perceptual speech features are limited. This descriptive study assessed 47 perceptual speech features during connected speech samples in 26 children with DS. The most severely affected speech features were: naturalness, imprecise…
Descriptors: Speech Impairments, Down Syndrome, Children, Speech Skills
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Smith, Elizabeth; Hedge, Craig; Jarrold, Christopher – American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2019
Executive function (EF) decline is a consistent early sign of Alzheimer's disease (AD) among adults with Down syndrome (DS), which means that baseline measures of EF for individuals with DS are vital to allow detection of meaningful decline. We developed a framework to extract measures of three core components of EF (memory updating, inhibitory,…
Descriptors: Executive Function, Down Syndrome, Identification, Clinical Diagnosis
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Facon, Bruno; Magis, David – American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2019
Uncertainty persists regarding the post-childhood trajectory of syntactic acquisition of persons with Down syndrome (DS). In some studies, asymptote is reached in the early teens, whereas others find syntax continuing to develop at least into early adulthood. This study addressed the issue using a cross-sectional approach. Receptive syntax and…
Descriptors: Syntax, Comprehension, Down Syndrome, Vocabulary
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Esbensen, Anna J.; Hoffman, Emily K.; Shaffer, Rebecca; Chen, Elizabeth; Patel, Lina; Jacola, Lisa – American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2019
The current study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) with children with Down syndrome. Caregivers of 84 children with Down syndrome rated their child's behavior with the BRIEF. Teacher ratings were obtained for 57 children. About 40% of children with Down syndrome were reported by…
Descriptors: Executive Function, Children, Down Syndrome, Behavior Rating Scales
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Dieleman, Lisa M.; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Soenens, Bart; Van Hove, Geert; Prinzie, Peter – American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2018
This study aimed to describe problem behaviors and psychosocial strengths, examine the problem-strength interrelations, and evaluate profiles of problems and strengths in youth with Down syndrome (DS). The community-based sample consisted of 67 parents of children with DS aged between 4 and 19 years. Parents reported about the developmental age…
Descriptors: Down Syndrome, Behavior Problems, Child Behavior, Children
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Rosser, Tracie C.; Edgin, Jamie O.; Capone, George T.; Hamilton, Debra R.; Allen, Emily G.; Dooley, Kenneth J.; Anand, Payal; Strang, John F.; Armour, A. Chelsea; Frank-Crawford, Michelle A.; Moore Channell, Marie; Pierpont, Elizabeth I.; Feingold, Eleanor; Maslen, Cheryl L.; Reeves, Roger H.; Sherman, Stephanie L. – American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2018
The cause of the high degree of variability in cognition and behavior among individuals with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. We hypothesized that birth defects requiring surgery in the first years of life (congenital heart defects and gastrointestinal defects) might affect an individual's level of function. We used data from the first 234…
Descriptors: Youth, Down Syndrome, Correlation, Congenital Impairments
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