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Rangel, Elizabeth S. – American Educational Research Association (AERA), 2009
Ensuring early literacy success is a wise investment because literacy skills are essential to success in all school subjects--literature, social sciences, natural science, and mathematics. There is a strong research base for how children learn to read, how to prevent failure, and how to intervene when reading difficulties occur. This issue of…
Descriptors: Emergent Literacy, Oral Language, Reading Skills, Time Factors (Learning)
Rowan, Brian – American Educational Research Association, 2004
Today's accountability systems place the blame on schools for inadequate student academic achievement, which seems unfair to many people. They believe that family background and the socioeconomic mix of students in the classroom exert such a strong influence on student learning that teachers and schools can have only a limited effect. Important…
Descriptors: Family Characteristics, Accountability, Academic Achievement, Teacher Effectiveness