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Morowski, Deborah L. – American Educational History Journal, 2013
After the Civil War, schooling for African Americans was irregular and consisted mainly of elementary grades. Education was provided, primarily, by elite, private institutions and fewer than three percent of students aged 13-17 attended regularly. In 1896, the United States Supreme Court issued a ruling in "Plessey v. Ferguson." Although…
Descriptors: Public Opinion, Hidden Curriculum, School Segregation, Court Litigation
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Watras, Joseph – American Educational History Journal, 2013
With the rise of the Cold War, federal officials in the United States sought to end the racial segregation that the U.S. Supreme Court had accepted in the 1896 decision of "Plessy v. Ferguson." Although the reforms began with changes in the armed services, they moved to reduce racial segregation in schools. Many forces brought about the…
Descriptors: United States History, Conflict, Racial Segregation, School Desegregation
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Johanningmeier, Erwin V. – American Educational History Journal, 2006
Patricia Graham's recent defense of public education in the United States shows that public education has been responsive to society's demands and supports the earlier observation of Charles Burgess and Merle Borrowman that the dominant educational ideology is a function of the nation's need for human resources. When the nation has clear and…
Descriptors: Educational Research, Ideology, School Guidance, Rewards