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Baker, Bruce D.; Di Carlo, Matthew; Weber, Mark – Albert Shanker Institute, 2021
We present an overview of spending adequacy among individual K-12 school districts in the U.S. Our results are from a new database of over 12,000 public school districts that allows users to compare each district's actual per-pupil spending levels to estimates of adequate spending levels--i.e., spending required to achieve the common goal of…
Descriptors: School Districts, School District Spending, School District Wealth, Expenditure per Student
Di Carlo, Matthew; Wysienska Di Carlo, Kinga; Fenelon, Ezechiel; Flood, Kirstyn; Milborn, Emilee; Rodriguez, Claudia – Albert Shanker Institute, 2021
Although school segregation in New York City (NYC) has received a great deal of attention for several decades, the vast majority of contemporary analyses, in the city and elsewhere, exclude private school students. This is mostly due to the fact that formal desegregation efforts have focused on public schools. Yet NYC's enormous private school…
Descriptors: Public Schools, Private Schools, Urban Schools, School Segregation
Baker, Bruce D.; Di Carlo, Matthew; Schneider, Lauren; Weber, Mark – Albert Shanker Institute, 2021
The State Indicators Database (SID), which is the School Finance Indicators Database's (SFID) primary product, includes approximately 125 variables, but this report focuses on three key school finance measures: fiscal effort, adequacy, and progressivity. This report discusses how states' systems tend to mediate the impact of economic downturns and…
Descriptors: Educational Equity (Finance), State Aid, Financial Support, Educational Finance
Baker, Bruce D.; Di Carlo, Matthew – Albert Shanker Institute, 2020
The most terrible and lasting effects of the coronavirus pandemic will of course be measured in loss of life. But a parallel tragedy will also be unfolding in the coming months and years, this one affecting those at the beginning of their lives: an unprecedented school funding crisis that threatens to disadvantage a generation of children. School…
Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Educational Finance, Economic Impact, Educational History
Sommers, Jeffrey; Blyth, Mark; Galbraith, James; Sosa, Luz – Albert Shanker Institute, 2020
Government supported higher education in the United States evolved from sponsoring knowledge in the public interest, from what was once the provenance of a select few based on inherited privilege, to a democratic expansion of access based on merit. In the process by the mid 20th century until our present, public higher education provided pillars…
Descriptors: COVID-19, Pandemics, Higher Education, Educational History
Baker, Bruce D.; Di Carlo, Matthew; Weber, Mark – Albert Shanker Institute, 2020
When it comes to American education, few policy areas are as misunderstood -- or as crucial -- as school finance. Over the past several years, a political and empirical consensus has emerged about the importance of equitable and adequate school funding for high quality K-12 education. In other words, the evidence is clear that money does, indeed,…
Descriptors: Educational Finance, Educational Equity (Finance), Elementary Secondary Education, Resource Allocation
Di Carlo, Matthew; Jama, Bilan – Albert Shanker Institute, 2019
In this research brief, we describe and decompose school segregation by race and ethnicity in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area, in which we include: the District of Columbia; Alexandria, Arlington, and Fairfax County in Virginia; and Montgomery County and Prince George's County in Maryland. We find only modest segregation within all but one…
Descriptors: School Segregation, Racial Segregation, Minority Group Students, Ethnicity
Baker, Bruce D.; Di Carlo, Matthew; Weber, Mark – Albert Shanker Institute, 2019
When it comes to American education, few policy areas are as misunderstood -- or as crucial -- as school finance. Over the past several years, a political and empirical consensus has emerged about the importance of equitable and adequate school funding for high-quality K-12 education. Certainly, there are plenty of contentious debates about how…
Descriptors: Educational Finance, Elementary Secondary Education, Resource Allocation, Poverty
Di Carlo, Matthew; Cervantes, Klarissa – Albert Shanker Institute, 2018
Despite increasing attention being focused on the importance of teacher diversity in recent years, the federal government does not centrally collect district- or school-level data on teacher race and ethnicity. This means that responsibility for the collection and promulgation of teacher diversity data falls to individual states and/or districts.…
Descriptors: Diversity (Faculty), Teacher Characteristics, Race, Ethnicity
Di Carlo, Matthew; Wysienska-Di Carlo, Kinga – Albert Shanker Institute, 2017
The purpose of this research brief is to describe racial and ethnic school segregation in the District of Columbia, within and between the private and public sectors (including charter schools). Using different measures, we find, unsurprisingly, a high degree of segregation within both sectors. Total segregation among private schools is driven…
Descriptors: Public Schools, Private Schools, School Segregation, Urban Schools
Baker, Bruce D.; Weber, Mark – Albert Shanker Institute, 2016
In this paper, the authors begin by classifying the arguments that assert American schools are relatively inefficient into two categories: the "long-term trend argument" and the "international comparison argument." Their focus herein is on the latter of these two. They then describe two frameworks for approaching either of…
Descriptors: Public Education, Public Schools, Misconceptions, Efficiency
Baker, Bruce D. – Albert Shanker Institute, 2016
This second edition policy brief revisits the long and storied literature on whether money matters in providing a quality education. It includes research released since the original brief in 2012 and covers a handful of additional topics. Increasingly, political rhetoric adheres to the unfounded certainty that money does not make a difference in…
Descriptors: State Schools, Educational Finance, Educational Quality, Educational Policy
Di Carlo, Matthew – Albert Shanker Institute, 2015
During the late 1990s and 2000s, the State of Florida enacted a set of education reforms spearheaded by Governor Jeb Bush. These policies, which emphasize test-based accountability, competition, and choice, have since become known as the "Florida Formula for education success," or, simply, the "Florida Formula." In recent…
Descriptors: Educational Change, Accountability, Program Implementation, Educational Objectives
Albert Shanker Institute, 2015
More than 60 years after the ruling in "Brown v. Board of Education" was handed down, its promise remains unfulfilled. In many respects, America's public schools continue to be "separate and unequal." Indeed, the growing re-segregation of American schools by race and ethnicity, compounded by economic class segregation, has…
Descriptors: Diversity (Faculty), Minority Group Teachers, Teacher Shortage, Urban Areas
Neuman, Susan B. – Albert Shanker Institute, 2014
The Preschool Educational Environment Rating System (PEERS) is a measure designed to examine the quality of instruction in preschool settings. Unlike other rating scales, it not only measures the environment, it also examines both how teachers construct their classroom for instruction and the quality of the enactment of instruction. Designed on…
Descriptors: Rating Scales, Educational Quality, Preschool Education, Educational Environment
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