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Baker, Bruce D.; Di Carlo, Matthew; Oberfield, Zachary W. – Albert Shanker Institute, 2023
School finance debates frequently turn on two crucial questions: (1) How much do state and local governments spend on K-12 education?; and (2) How are education dollars distributed across jurisdictions? This focus makes sense because the answers to these questions determine how well states are able to provide an adequate, equal education for all…
Descriptors: Educational Finance, Elementary Secondary Education, Income, Educational Equity (Finance)
Susan B. Neuman; Esther Quintero; Kayla Reist – Albert Shanker Institute, 2023
In recent years, a scientific approach to reading education has gained traction due to the joint efforts of educators, parents, and state leaders. This movement for better reading instruction has helped to fuel a wave of legislation to address widespread and persistent reading deficits of American students. While reading difficulties cut across…
Descriptors: Educational Change, Reading, Reading Instruction, Educational Legislation
Baker, Bruce D.; Di Carlo, Matthew; Green, Preston C., III – Albert Shanker Institute, 2022
It is difficult to overstate the importance of segregation for race- and ethnicity-based school funding disparities in the United States. In many respects, unequal educational opportunity depends existentially on segregation. Racial and ethnic disparities in wealth accumulation are perpetuated over generations, ensuring persistent segregation even…
Descriptors: Racial Segregation, Ethnicity, Educational Finance, Racial Bias
Baker, Bruce D.; Di Carlo, Matthew; Weber, Mark – Albert Shanker Institute, 2022
In this report, the authors propose and simulate a framework for a new foundation formula approach to distributing federal K-12 education aid. This proposal, with full funding and compliance, would provide every school district with the estimated revenues necessary to reach the goal of average national outcomes in mathematics and reading. The…
Descriptors: Funding Formulas, Educational Finance, Federal Aid, Elementary Secondary Education
Baker, Bruce D.; Di Carlo, Matthew; Weber, Mark – Albert Shanker Institute, 2022
Over the past 10-15 years, there has emerged a growing consensus, supported by high-quality empirical research, that additional funding improves student outcomes (and funding cuts hurt those outcomes), particularly among disadvantaged students. There are, of course, serious and important debates about how education funding should be spent. Yet…
Descriptors: Educational Finance, Educational Equity (Finance), State Aid, Financial Support
Baker, Bruce D.; Di Carlo, Matthew; Weber, Mark – Albert Shanker Institute, 2021
We present an overview of spending adequacy among individual K-12 school districts in the U.S. Our results are from a new database of over 12,000 public school districts that allows users to compare each district's actual per-pupil spending levels to estimates of adequate spending levels--i.e., spending required to achieve the common goal of…
Descriptors: School Districts, School District Spending, School District Wealth, Expenditure per Student
Di Carlo, Matthew; Wysienska Di Carlo, Kinga; Fenelon, Ezechiel; Flood, Kirstyn; Milborn, Emilee; Rodriguez, Claudia – Albert Shanker Institute, 2021
Although school segregation in New York City (NYC) has received a great deal of attention for several decades, the vast majority of contemporary analyses, in the city and elsewhere, exclude private school students. This is mostly due to the fact that formal desegregation efforts have focused on public schools. Yet NYC's enormous private school…
Descriptors: Public Schools, Private Schools, Urban Schools, School Segregation
Baker, Bruce D.; Di Carlo, Matthew; Schneider, Lauren; Weber, Mark – Albert Shanker Institute, 2021
The State Indicators Database (SID), which is the School Finance Indicators Database's (SFID) primary product, includes approximately 125 variables, but this report focuses on three key school finance measures: fiscal effort, adequacy, and progressivity. This report discusses how states' systems tend to mediate the impact of economic downturns and…
Descriptors: Educational Equity (Finance), State Aid, Financial Support, Educational Finance
Baker, Bruce D.; Di Carlo, Matthew; Reist, Kayla; Weber, Mark – Albert Shanker Institute, 2021
The State Indicators Database (SID), which is the School Finance Indicators Database's (SFID) primary product, includes approximately 125 variables, but this report focuses on three key school finance measures: fiscal effort, adequacy, and progressivity. This report discusses how states' systems tend to mediate the impact of economic downturns and…
Descriptors: Educational Finance, Educational Equity (Finance), State Aid, Financial Support
Sommers, Jeffrey; Blyth, Mark; Galbraith, James; Sosa, Luz – Albert Shanker Institute, 2020
Government supported higher education in the United States evolved from sponsoring knowledge in the public interest, from what was once the provenance of a select few based on inherited privilege, to a democratic expansion of access based on merit. In the process by the mid 20th century until our present, public higher education provided pillars…
Descriptors: COVID-19, Pandemics, Higher Education, Educational History
Baker, Bruce D.; Di Carlo, Matthew – Albert Shanker Institute, 2020
The most terrible and lasting effects of the coronavirus pandemic will of course be measured in loss of life. But a parallel tragedy will also be unfolding in the coming months and years, this one affecting those at the beginning of their lives: an unprecedented school funding crisis that threatens to disadvantage a generation of children. School…
Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Educational Finance, Economic Impact, Educational History
Baker, Bruce D.; Di Carlo, Matthew; Weber, Mark – Albert Shanker Institute, 2020
When it comes to American education, few policy areas are as misunderstood -- or as crucial -- as school finance. Over the past several years, a political and empirical consensus has emerged about the importance of equitable and adequate school funding for high quality K-12 education. In other words, the evidence is clear that money does, indeed,…
Descriptors: Educational Finance, Educational Equity (Finance), Elementary Secondary Education, Resource Allocation
Baker, Bruce D.; Di Carlo, Matthew; Weber, Mark – Albert Shanker Institute, 2019
When it comes to American education, few policy areas are as misunderstood -- or as crucial -- as school finance. Over the past several years, a political and empirical consensus has emerged about the importance of equitable and adequate school funding for high-quality K-12 education. Certainly, there are plenty of contentious debates about how…
Descriptors: Educational Finance, Elementary Secondary Education, Resource Allocation, Poverty
Di Carlo, Matthew; Jama, Bilan – Albert Shanker Institute, 2019
In this research brief, we describe and decompose school segregation by race and ethnicity in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area, in which we include: the District of Columbia; Alexandria, Arlington, and Fairfax County in Virginia; and Montgomery County and Prince George's County in Maryland. We find only modest segregation within all but one…
Descriptors: School Segregation, Racial Segregation, Minority Group Students, Ethnicity
Di Carlo, Matthew; Cervantes, Klarissa – Albert Shanker Institute, 2018
Despite increasing attention being focused on the importance of teacher diversity in recent years, the federal government does not centrally collect district- or school-level data on teacher race and ethnicity. This means that responsibility for the collection and promulgation of teacher diversity data falls to individual states and/or districts.…
Descriptors: Diversity (Faculty), Teacher Characteristics, Race, Ethnicity
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