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Violato, Claudio; Gao, Hong; O'Brien, Mary Claire; Grier, David; Shen, E. – Advances in Health Sciences Education, 2018
The distinction between basic sciences and clinical knowledge which has led to a theoretical debate on how medical expertise is developed has implications for medical school and lifelong medical education. This longitudinal, population based observational study was conducted to test the fit of three theories--knowledge encapsulation, independent…
Descriptors: Physicians, Expertise, Longitudinal Studies, Structural Equation Models
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St-Onge, Christina; Landry, Marjolaine; Xhignesse, Marianne; Voyer, Gilles; Tremblay-Lavoie, Stéphanie; Mamede, Sílvia; Schmidt, Henk; Rikers, Remy – Advances in Health Sciences Education, 2016
Since cognitive abilities have been shown to decrease with age, it is expected that older physicians would not perform as well as their younger counterparts on clinical cases unless their expertise can counteract the cognitive effects of aging. However, studies on the topic have shown contradictory results. This study aimed to further investigate…
Descriptors: Cognitive Ability, Age, Physicians, Expertise
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Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Gushta, Matthew M.; Mulroney, Susan E.; Weissinger, Peggy A. – Advances in Health Sciences Education, 2013
Multiple choice (MC) questions from a graduate physiology course were evaluated by cognitive-psychology (but not physiology) experts, and analyzed statistically, in order to test the independence of content expertise and cognitive complexity ratings of MC items. Integration of higher order thinking into MC exams is important, but widely known to…
Descriptors: Multiple Choice Tests, Critical Thinking, Graduate Study, Physiology
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Govaerts, M. J. B.; Van de Wiel, M. W. J.; Schuwirth, L. W. T.; Van der Vleuten, C. P. M.; Muijtjens, A. M. M. – Advances in Health Sciences Education, 2013
Weaknesses in the nature of rater judgments are generally considered to compromise the utility of workplace-based assessment (WBA). In order to gain insight into the underpinnings of rater behaviours, we investigated how raters form impressions of and make judgments on trainee performance. Using theoretical frameworks of social cognition and…
Descriptors: Medical Education, Personnel Evaluation, Evaluators, Trainees
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Pleguezuelos, E. M.; Hornos, E.; Dory, V.; Gagnon, R.; Malagrino, P.; Brailovsky, C. A.; Charlin, B. – Advances in Health Sciences Education, 2013
Context: The PRACTICUM Institute has developed large-scale international programs of on-line continuing professional development (CPD) based on self-testing and feedback using the Practicum Script Concordance Test© (PSCT). Aims: To examine the psychometric consequences of pooling the responses of panelists from different countries (composite…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Practicums, Professional Development, Psychometrics
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Durning, Steven J.; Artino, Anthony R.; Boulet, John R.; Dorrance, Kevin; van der Vleuten, Cees; Schuwirth, Lambert – Advances in Health Sciences Education, 2012
Context specificity, or the variation in a participant's performance from one case, or situation, to the next, is a recognized problem in medical education. However, studies have not explored the potential reasons for context specificity in experts using the lens of situated cognition and cognitive load theories (CLT). Using these theories, we…
Descriptors: Expertise, Video Technology, Learning Theories, Medical Education