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ERIC Number: EJ1042070
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014-Oct
Pages: 12
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1098-3007
Integrating a Social Behavior Intervention during Small Group Academic Instruction Using a Total Group Criterion Intervention
Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Anderson, Cynthia M.
Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, v16 n4 p234-245 Oct 2014
Total group contingencies, a variation of interdependent group contingencies, provide educators with an efficient and effective mechanism to improve social behavior and increase academic skills. Their utility has not been examined in small educational groups. This is unfortunate as supplemental instruction frequently is delivered in small group settings, and problem behavior may have a deleterious effect on learning. This study evaluated effects of a positive reinforcement total group contingency implemented by instructional assistants across five small groups of kindergarten students receiving supplemental literacy instruction. Results indicated reductions in student problem behavior, increases in adult provision of specific praise statements, and increases in opportunities to respond to academic instruction. Although the intervention focused on student social behavior, we also documented improved fidelity of implementation of the literacy instruction following training and implementation of the total group criterion intervention. The implications for implementing total group contingencies during small group instruction are discussed.
SAGE Publications and Hammill Institute on Disabilities. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Kindergarten; Primary Education; Early Childhood Education; Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)