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Vasilev, Martin R.; Slattery, Timothy J.; Kirkby, Julie A.; Angele, Bernhard – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2018
It has been suggested that the preview benefit effect is actually a combination of preview benefit and preview costs. Marx et al. (2015) proposed that visually degrading the parafoveal preview reduces the costs associated with traditional parafoveal letter masks used in the boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975), thus leading to a more neutral baseline.…
Descriptors: Silent Reading, Eye Movements, Word Recognition, Undergraduate Students
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Slattery, Timothy J.; Staub, Adrian; Rayner, Keith – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2012
An important question in research on eye movements in reading is whether word frequency and word predictability have additive or interactive effects on fixation durations. A fair number of studies have reported only additive effects of the frequency and predictability of a target word on reading times on that word, failing to show significant…
Descriptors: Eye Movements, Word Recognition, Word Frequency, Reading
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Slattery, Timothy J. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2009
An eye movement experiment was conducted to investigate whether the processing of a word can be affected by its higher frequency neighbor (HFN). Target words with an HFN (birch) or without one (spruce) were embedded into 2 types of sentence frames: 1 in which the HFN (birth) could fit given the prior sentence context, and 1 in which it could not.…
Descriptors: Eye Movements, Language Processing, Word Recognition, Word Frequency
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Slattery, Timothy J.; Angele, Bernhard; Rayner, Keith – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2011
In the boundary change paradigm (Rayner, 1975), when a reader's eyes cross an invisible boundary location, a preview word is replaced by a target word. Readers are generally unaware of such changes due to saccadic suppression. However, some readers detect changes on a few trials and a small percentage of them detect many changes. Two experiments…
Descriptors: Sentences, Eye Movements, Human Body, Word Processing
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Rayner, Keith; Slattery, Timothy J.; Drieghe, Denis; Liversedge, Simon P. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2011
Eye movements were monitored as subjects read sentences containing high- or low-predictable target words. The extent to which target words were predictable from prior context was varied: Half of the target words were predictable, and the other half were unpredictable. In addition, the length of the target word varied: The target words were short…
Descriptors: Sentences, Eye Movements, Word Recognition, Human Body
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Pollatsek, Alexander; Slattery, Timothy J.; Juhasz, Barbara – Language and Cognitive Processes, 2008
Two experiments compared how relatively long novel prefixed words (e.g., "overfarm") and existing prefixed words were processed in reading. The use of novel prefixed words allows one to examine the roles of whole-word access and decompositional processing in the processing of non-novel prefixed words. The two experiments found that,…
Descriptors: Morphemes, Language Processing, Novels, Reading Processes
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Slattery, Timothy J.; Schotter, Elizabeth R.; Berry, Raymond W.; Rayner, Keith – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2011
The processing of abbreviations in reading was examined with an eye movement experiment. Abbreviations were of 2 distinct types: acronyms (abbreviations that can be read with the normal grapheme-phoneme correspondence [GPC] rules, such as NASA) and initialisms (abbreviations in which the GPCs are letter names, such as NCAA). Parafoveal and foveal…
Descriptors: Sentences, Cues, Letters (Correspondence), Models
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Gollan, Tamar H.; Slattery, Timothy J.; Goldenberg, Diane; Van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Rayner, Keith – Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2011
To contrast mechanisms of lexical access in production versus comprehension we compared the effects of word frequency (high, low), context (none, low constraint, high constraint), and level of English proficiency (monolingual, Spanish-English bilingual, Dutch-English bilingual) on picture naming, lexical decision, and eye fixation times. Semantic…
Descriptors: Semantics, Eye Movements, Monolingualism, Language Processing
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Eskenazi, Michael A.; Nix, Bailey – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2021
Reading in difficult or novel fonts results in slower and less efficient reading (Slattery & Rayner, 2010); however, these fonts may also lead to better learning and memory (Diemand-Yauman, Oppenheimer, & Vaughan, 2011). This effect is consistent with a desirable difficulty effect such that more effort during encoding results in better…
Descriptors: Individual Differences, Difficulty Level, Word Frequency, Layout (Publications)
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Rayner, Keith; Chace, Kathryn H.; Slattery, Timothy J.; Ashby, Jane – Scientific Studies of Reading, 2006
In this article, we discuss the use of eye movement data to assess moment-to-moment comprehension processes. We first review some basic characteristics of eye movements during reading and then present two studies in which eye movements are monitored to confirm that eye movements are sensitive to (a) global text passage difficulty, and (b)…
Descriptors: Eye Movements, Reading Comprehension, Reading Processes, Reader Text Relationship
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Rayner, Keith; Pollatsek, Alexander; Drieghe, Denis; Slattery, Timothy J.; Reichle, Erik D. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2007
R. Kliegl, A. Nuthmann, and R. Engbert reported an impressive set of data analyses dealing with the influence of the prior, present, and next word on the duration of the current eye fixation during reading. They argued that outcomes of their regression analyses indicate that lexical processing is distributed across a number of words during…
Descriptors: Reading Research, Human Body, Eye Movements, Language Processing
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Schotter, Elizabeth R.; Jia, Annie – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2016
Theories of preview benefit in reading hinge on integration across saccades and the idea that preview benefit is greater the more similar the preview and target are. Schotter (2013) reported preview benefit from a synonymous preview, but it is unclear whether this effect occurs because of similarity between the preview and target (i.e.,…
Descriptors: Semantics, Eye Movements, Reading Processes, English
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Angele, Bernhard; Rayner, Keith – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2011
We used the boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) to test two hypotheses that might explain why no conclusive evidence has been found for the existence of n + 2 preprocessing effects. In Experiment 1, we tested whether parafoveal processing of the second word to the right of fixation (n + 2) takes place only when the preceding word (n + 1) is very…
Descriptors: Models, Hypothesis Testing, Evidence, Vision