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Grow, Laura L.; Kodak, Tiffany – Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2010
Previous research on the acquisition of verbal behavior in children with developmental disabilities has focused on teaching four primary verbal operants: (1) "mand"; (2) "tact"; (3) "echoic"; and (4) "intraverbal". In Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior, he stated that each verbal operant is maintained by unique antecedent and consequence…
Descriptors: Verbal Stimuli, Developmental Disabilities, Verbal Operant Conditioning, Children
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Finn, Heather E.; Miguel, Caio F.; Ahearn, William H. – Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2012
Despite Skinner's (1957) assertion that verbal operants are initially functionally independent, recent studies have suggested that in some cases the acquisition of one verbal operant (e.g., mand) gives rise to the other (e.g., tact) without explicit training. The present study aimed to evaluate the functional independence of mands and tacts during…
Descriptors: Autism, Young Children, Verbal Operant Conditioning, Scores
Kelley, M. E.; Shillingsburg, M.A.; Castro, M. J.; Addison, L. R.; LaRue, R. H., Jr. – Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2007
The conceptual basis for many effective language-training programs are based on Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior. Skinner described several elementary verbal operants including mands, tacts, intraverbals, and echoics. According to Skinner, responses that are the same topography may actually be functionally independent. Previous…
Descriptors: Language of Instruction, Verbal Stimuli, Generalization, Autism
Shillingsburg, M. Alice; Kelley, Michael E.; Roane, Henry S.; Kisamore, April; Brown, Melissa R. – Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2009
Topographically similar verbal responses may be functionally independent forms of operant behavior. For example, saying yes or no may have different functions based on the environmental conditions in effect. The present study extends previous research on both the assessment and acquisition of yes and no responses across contexts in children with…
Descriptors: Evaluation, Verbal Operant Conditioning, Autism, Developmental Disabilities
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Najdowski, Adel C.; Bergstrom, Ryan; Tarbox, Jonathan; St. Clair, Megan – Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2017
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulty inferring the private events of others, including private verbal behavior (e.g., thoughts), private emotional responses, and private establishing operations, often referred to as "perspective taking" by the general psychology community. Children with ASD also have…
Descriptors: Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Verbal Communication, Emotional Response
Murphy, Carol; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne – Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2005
Mand functions for two stimuli (A1 and A2) were trained for 3 children with autism and were then incorporated into two related conditional discriminations (A1-B1/A2 -B2 and B1-C1/B2-C2). Tests were conducted to probe for a derived transfer of mand response functions from Al and A2 to C1 and C2, respectively. When 1 participant failed to…
Descriptors: Verbal Stimuli, Autism, Verbal Operant Conditioning, Child Behavior