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Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred – Language Testing, 2009
Just like buildings, tests are designed and built for specific purposes, people, and uses. However, both buildings and tests grow and change over time as the needs of their users change. Sometimes, they are also both used for purposes other than those intended in the original designs. This paper explores architecture as a metaphor for language…
Descriptors: Figurative Language, Language Tests, Measurement Techniques, Test Validity
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Bennear, Lori S.; Lee, Jonathan M.; Taylor, Laura O. – Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 2013
When policies incentivize voluntary activities that also take place in the absence of the incentive, it is critical to identify the additionality of the policy--that is, the degree to which the policy results in actions that would not have occurred otherwise. Rebate programs have become a common conservation policy tool for local municipalities…
Descriptors: Public Policy, Conservation (Environment), Incentives, Water
Flynn, Emily – Sustainable Endowments Institute (NJ1), 2011
Stanford University's Energy Retrofit Program was created in 1993 to target resource reduction and conservation focused projects on campus. Fahmida Ahmed, Associate Director of the Department of Sustainability and Energy Management, says that Stanford has been investing in sustainability and energy-efficiency since the late 1970s, longer than many…
Descriptors: Energy Management, Colleges, Sustainability, Educational Finance
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Stanford, Barbara; Reeves, Stacy – TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, 2009
When children of diverse disabilities and students with ELL rulings are included in traditional classrooms, regular education teachers face a dilemma: How to teach the standard curriculum and teach the new inclusion students? How do they teach students with different heritages and linguistic backgrounds? Differentiated Instruction (DI) is content,…
Descriptors: Individualized Instruction, Access to Education, Inclusion, Disabilities
Austin, Wes; Heutel, Garth; Kreisman, Daniel – National Bureau of Economic Research, 2019
Diesel emissions from school buses expose children to high levels of air pollution; retrofitting bus engines can substantially reduce this exposure. Using variation from 2,656 retrofits across Georgia, we estimate effects of emissions reductions on district-level health and academic achievement. We demonstrate positive effects on respiratory…
Descriptors: School Buses, Pollution, Health, Academic Achievement
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Morgenstern, Mark; Meyer, Sally; Whitten, Barbara; Reuer, Matt – Journal of College Science Teaching, 2008
At Colorado College, the energy retrofit of a building is used as a service-learning research project to teach physics and chemistry in a variety of courses. In introductory courses for nonscience majors, the project helps students appreciate the scientific method and quantitative reasoning. Within the physical-chemistry course, students see that…
Descriptors: Majors (Students), Introductory Courses, Scientific Methodology, Thermodynamics
Elliott, Judy L. – School Administrator, 2003
Discusses issues related to reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act pertaining to assessment and accountability requirements in the No Child Left Behind Act. (PKP)
Descriptors: Accountability, Elementary Secondary Education, Intervention, Student Evaluation
Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1974
Notes on new building designs that conserve energy by taking advantage of natural resources. (JF)
Descriptors: Building Design, Colleges, Elementary Schools, Energy Conservation
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Ravand, Hamdollah; Baghaei, Purya – International Journal of Testing, 2020
More than three decades after their introduction, diagnostic classification models (DCM) do not seem to have been implemented in educational systems for the purposes they were devised. Most DCM research is either methodological for model development and refinement or retrofitting to existing nondiagnostic tests and, in the latter case, basically…
Descriptors: Classification, Models, Diagnostic Tests, Test Construction
Canipe, Stephen L.; And Others – American School and University, 1983
A School Retrofit Design Analysis System (SRDAS) provides energy modeling analyses of school buildings. SRDAS has three subprograms that consider first, roof, windows, walls, floors, and infiltration sites; second, costs per student, compliance with national energy consumption norms, and electricity costs projections; and third, financial savings…
Descriptors: Administrators, Building Operation, Computer Programs, Decision Making
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Priest, Susanna Hornig; Greenhalgh, Ted; Neill, Helen R.; Young, Gabriel Reuben – Applied Environmental Education and Communication, 2015
Diffusion theory, developed and popularized within communication research by Everett Rogers, is a venerable approach with much to recommend it as a theoretical foundation for applied communication research. In developing an applied project for a home energy conservation (energy efficiency retrofit) program in the state of Nevada, we utilized key…
Descriptors: Communication (Thought Transfer), Adoption (Ideas), Energy Conservation, Housing
Ries, Jack – School Planning and Management, 1998
Presents the steps needed to successfully design a lighting retrofit of school classrooms. Tips cover budgeting, technology, financing, contractor selection, assessing area function, and choosing a light source. (GR)
Descriptors: Classroom Environment, Educational Facilities Improvement, Elementary Secondary Education, Guidelines
3D/International, Houston, TX. – 1999
Successfully retrofitting aging K-12 schools using energy conservation measures (ECM) that can improve the physical plant and reduce energy consumption are explored. Topics explore how certain ECM measures can benefit educational facilities, why retrofitting begun sooner rather than later is important, how to finance the retrofit program, and the…
Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Cost Effectiveness, Educational Facilities Improvement, Elementary Secondary Education
Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC. – 1995
The intent of this document is to provide technical guidance to school district facility managers for linking specific incremental seismic retrofit opportunities to specific maintenance and capital improvement projects. The linkages are based on logical affinities, such as technical fit, location of the work within the building, cost saving…
Descriptors: Earthquakes, Elementary Secondary Education, Evaluation Methods, Facilities Management
Freeman, Laurie – School Planning and Management, 1997
After 20 years of inadequate heating and cooling, an Indiana school district took advantage of a 1994 state law that allows school districts to bypass the "low-bidder wins" restriction. The district established a guaranteed energy-saving contract for a climate-control-improvements package to retrofit the junior-senior high school. (MLF)
Descriptors: Accountability, Climate Control, Cost Effectiveness, Educational Facilities Improvement
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