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Gopnik, Alison; Wellman, Henry M. – Psychological Bulletin, 2012
We propose a new version of the "theory theory" grounded in the computational framework of probabilistic causal models and Bayesian learning. Probabilistic models allow a constructivist but rigorous and detailed approach to cognitive development. They also explain the learning of both more specific causal hypotheses and more abstract framework…
Descriptors: Causal Models, Theory of Mind, Probability, Cognitive Development
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Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Gable, Philip A.; Price, Tom F. – Psychological Bulletin, 2011
Friedman and Forster (2010) reviewed an extensive program of research that was consistent with the view that positive affective states broaden, whereas negative affective states narrow, the scope of attention. We applaud their creative investigations into these important psychological questions and appreciate their thorough review. However, recent…
Descriptors: Evidence, Investigations, Motivation, Attention
Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.; McClelland, Gary M.; Mericle, Amy A.; Dulcan, Mina K.; Washburn, Jason J. – Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2006
This bulletin examines the prevalence of alcohol, drug, and mental disorders among youth at the Cook County (Illinois) Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, by gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Drawing on research conducted by the Northwestern Juvenile Project, this bulletin finds that nearly two-thirds of males and three-quarters of females studied…
Descriptors: Mental Disorders, Juvenile Justice, Psychological Patterns, Drug Abuse
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De Houwer, Jan; Teige-Mocigemba, Sarah; Spruyt, Adriaan; Moors, Agnes – Psychological Bulletin, 2009
Implicit measures can be defined as outcomes of measurement procedures that are caused in an automatic manner by psychological attributes. To establish that a measurement outcome is an implicit measure, one should examine (a) whether the outcome is causally produced by the psychological attribute it was designed to measure, (b) the nature of the…
Descriptors: Heuristics, Psychology, Evaluation Methods, Behavior Standards
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McGrath, Robert E.; Mitchell, Matthew; Kim, Brian H.; Hough, Leaetta – Psychological Bulletin, 2010
After 100 years of discussion, response bias remains a controversial topic in psychological measurement. The use of bias indicators in applied assessment is predicated on the assumptions that (a) response bias suppresses or moderates the criterion-related validity of substantive psychological indicators and (b) bias indicators are capable of…
Descriptors: Response Style (Tests), Psychometrics, Investigations, Error of Measurement
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Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie; Hult, Jen R.; Bussolari, Cori; Acree, Michael – Psychological Bulletin, 2009
Knowledge of effective ways of coping with HIV is critical to help individuals with HIV maintain the best possible psychological and physical well-being. The purpose of the present article is to determine, through meta-analysis, the strength of the evidence regarding 2 questions: (a) Which types of coping are related to psychological and physical…
Descriptors: Well Being, Physical Health, Health Behavior, Coping
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Wagemans, Johan; Feldman, Jacob; Gepshtein, Sergei; Kimchi, Ruth; Pomerantz, James R.; van der Helm, Peter A.; van Leeuwen, Cees – Psychological Bulletin, 2012
Our first review article (Wagemans et al., 2012) on the occasion of the centennial anniversary of Gestalt psychology focused on perceptual grouping and figure-ground organization. It concluded that further progress requires a reconsideration of the conceptual and theoretical foundations of the Gestalt approach, which is provided here. In…
Descriptors: Brain, Stimulation, Psychology, Science Instruction
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Harvey, Allison G.; Tang, Nicole K. Y. – Psychological Bulletin, 2012
Insomnia is prevalent, causing severe distress and impairment. This review focuses on illuminating the puzzling finding that many insomnia patients misperceive their sleep. They overestimate their sleep onset latency (SOL) and underestimate their total sleep time (TST), relative to objective measures. This tendency is ubiquitous (although not…
Descriptors: Time Management, Attention, Public Health, Sleep
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Richardson, Michelle; Abraham, Charles; Bond, Rod – Psychological Bulletin, 2012
A review of 13 years of research into antecedents of university students' grade point average (GPA) scores generated the following: a comprehensive, conceptual map of known correlates of tertiary GPA; assessment of the magnitude of average, weighted correlations with GPA; and tests of multivariate models of GPA correlates within and across…
Descriptors: Personality Traits, Grade Point Average, Self Efficacy, Academic Achievement
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Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B. – Psychological Bulletin, 2010
In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…
Descriptors: African Americans, Mental Disorders, Psychopathology, Etiology
Starke, Kathryn – Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2012
Creativity isn't formally assessed or evaluated on tests or report cards, so teachers rarely plan lessons that encourage it. In fact, many teachers unintentionally stifle children's creativity when they cut off student's oral responses or stop them from adding more to their work so that they can bring the class back to the task at hand. Instead,…
Descriptors: Creativity, Bulletin Boards, Childrens Writing, Creative Thinking
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Barel, Efrat; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J. – Psychological Bulletin, 2010
The current set of meta-analyses elucidates the long-term psychiatric, psychosocial, and physical consequences of the Holocaust for survivors. In 71 samples with 12,746 participants Holocaust survivors were compared with their counterparts (with no Holocaust background) on physical health, psychological well-being, posttraumatic stress symptoms,…
Descriptors: Stress Variables, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Physical Health, Death
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Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Parker, Karen J. – Psychological Bulletin, 2011
Among people exposed to major psychological stressors in early life, there are elevated rates of morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases of aging. The most compelling data come from studies of children raised in poverty or maltreated by their parents, who show heightened vulnerability to vascular disease, autoimmune disorders, and premature…
Descriptors: Stress Variables, Diseases, Children, Psychological Patterns
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van Zomeren, Martijn; Postmes, Tom; Spears, Russell – Psychological Bulletin, 2008
An integrative social identity model of collective action (SIMCA) is developed that incorporates 3 socio-psychological perspectives on collective action. Three meta-analyses synthesized a total of 182 effects of perceived injustice, efficacy, and identity on collective action (corresponding to these socio-psychological perspectives). Results…
Descriptors: Models, Prediction, Statistical Analysis, Psychology
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Hanisch, Laura J.; Hantsoo, Liisa; Freeman, Ellen W.; Sullivan, Gregory M.; Coyne, James C. – Psychological Bulletin, 2008
Despite decades of research, the causal mechanisms of hot flashes are not adequately understood, and a biopsychosocial perspective on hot flashes remains underdeveloped. This article explores overlooked parallels between hot flashes and panic attacks within 5 areas: course and symptomatology, physiological indicators, neurocircuitry and…
Descriptors: Psychological Patterns, Symptoms (Individual Disorders), Biology, Neurological Organization
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