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Knudsen, Daniel; Thompson, Jason V.; Gentner, Timothy Q. – Learning and Motivation, 2010
Individual vocal recognition behaviors in songbirds provide an excellent framework for the investigation of comparative psychological and neurobiological mechanisms that support the perception and cognition of complex acoustic communication signals. To this end, the complex songs of European starlings have been studied extensively. Yet, several…
Descriptors: Singing, Operant Conditioning, Acoustics, Animals
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Galluccio, Llissa; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn – Learning and Motivation, 2006
A time window is a limited period after an event initially occurs in which additional information can be integrated with the memory of that event. It shuts when the memory is forgotten. The time window hypothesis holds that the impact of a manipulation at different points within the time window is nonuniform. In two operant conditioning…
Descriptors: Memory, Time, Operant Conditioning, Infants
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Stahlman, W. David; Blaisdell, Aaron P. – Learning and Motivation, 2011
Recent studies have demonstrated that the expectation of reward delivery has an inverse relationship with operant behavioral variation (e.g., Stahlman, Roberts, & Blaisdell, 2010). Research thus far has largely focused on one aspect of reinforcement--the likelihood of food delivery. In two experiments with pigeons, we examined the effect of two…
Descriptors: Reinforcement, Operant Conditioning, Rewards, Animals
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Winterbauer, Neil E.; Lucke, Sara; Bouton, Mark E. – Learning and Motivation, 2013
In resurgence, an operant behavior that has undergone extinction can return ("resurge") when a second operant that has replaced it itself undergoes extinction. The phenomenon may provide insight into relapse that may occur after incentive or contingency management therapies in humans. Three experiments with rats examined the impact of several…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Operant Conditioning, Contingency Management, Animals
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Aoyama, Kenjiro – Learning and Motivation, 2007
This study tested the effects of post-session wheel running on within-session changes in operant responding. Lever-pressing by six rats was reinforced by a food pellet under a continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule in 30-min sessions. Two different flavored food pellets were used as reinforcers. In the wheel conditions, 30-min operant-sessions…
Descriptors: Animals, Animal Behavior, Operant Conditioning, Reinforcement
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Woods, Amanda M.; Bouton, Mark E. – Learning and Motivation, 2007
Three experiments with rats examined reacquisition of an operant response after either extinction or a response-elimination procedure that included occasional reinforced responses during extinction. In each experiment, reacquisition was slower when response elimination had included occasional reinforced responses, although the effect was…
Descriptors: Classical Conditioning, Reinforcement, Operant Conditioning, Animals
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Klein, Emily D.; Gehrke, Brenda J.; Green, Thomas A.; Zentall, Thomas R.; Bardo, Michael T. – Learning and Motivation, 2007
The purpose of the present experiment was to determine whether repeated cocaine exposure differentially affects sucrose-reinforced operant responding in rats raised in an enriched condition (EC) or an isolated condition (IC). Specifically, the performance of EC and IC rats pressing a lever for sucrose under a high fixed-ratio schedule (FR 30)…
Descriptors: Cues, Cocaine, Reinforcement, Operant Conditioning
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Bradshaw, Ceri A.; Reed, Phil – Learning and Motivation, 2012
In three experiments, human participants pressed the space bar on a computer keyboard to earn points on random-ratio (RR) and random-interval (RI) schedules of reinforcement. Verbalized contingency awareness (CA) for each schedule was measured after the entire task (Experiments 1 and 2), or after each RR-RI trial (Experiment 3). In all three…
Descriptors: Intervals, Reinforcement, Computers, Task Analysis
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Miller, Ronald Mellado; Capaldi, E. John – Learning and Motivation, 2006
Sequential theory's memory model of learning has been successfully applied in response contingent instrumental conditioning experiments (Capaldi, 1966, 1967, 1994; Capaldi & Miller, 2003). However, it has not been systematically tested in nonresponse contingent Pavlovian conditioning experiments. The present experiments attempted to determine if…
Descriptors: Reinforcement, Training, Experiments, Probability
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Gamez, A. Matias; Rosas, Juan M. – Learning and Motivation, 2007
Four experiments were conducted to study the contents of human instrumental conditioning. Experiment 1 found positive transfer between a discriminative stimulus (S[superscript D] and an instrumental response (R) that shared the outcome (O) with the response that was originally trained with the S[superscript D], showing the formation of an…
Descriptors: Operant Conditioning, Discrimination Learning, Association (Psychology), Experiments
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Lombas, Andres S.; Kearns, David N.; Weiss, Stanley J. – Learning and Motivation, 2008
The present experiment compared the effects of a food-based conditioned inhibitor on food seeking vs. cocaine seeking behavior. In two groups of rats, the A+/AB- Pavlovian conditioned inhibition procedure was used to create a conditioned inhibitor for food. Then, for one group of rats (Food-Food Group), a click stimulus was established as an…
Descriptors: Behavior Modification, Cocaine, Classical Conditioning, Animals
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Epstein, Leonard H.; Robinson, Jodie L.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Roemmich, James N.; Marusewski, Angela; Nadbrzuch, Rachel – Learning and Motivation, 2008
The rate of habituation to food is inversely related to energy intake, and overweight children may habituate slower to food and consume more energy. This study compared patterns of sensitization, as defined by an initial increase in operant or motivated responding for food, and habituation, defined by gradual reduction in responding, for macaroni…
Descriptors: Obesity, Habituation, Comparative Analysis, Children
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Capaldi, E. J.; Martins, Ana P. G. – Learning and Motivation, 2010
A theory devised initially on the basis of instrumental reward schedule data, such as the PREE, was extended to deal with various Pavlovian findings. These Pavlovian findings include blocking, unblocking, relative validity, positive and negative patterning, renewal, reinstatement, reacquisition, and inhibition. In addition, the sequential model…
Descriptors: Classical Conditioning, Memory, Reinforcement, Behavior Modification
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Maes, J. H. R.; van der Goot, M. – Learning and Motivation, 2006
This study asked whether the concurrent reinforcement of behavioral variability facilitates learning to emit a difficult target response. Sixty students repeatedly pressed sequences of keys, with an originally infrequently occurring target sequence consistently being followed by positive feedback. Three conditions differed in the feedback given to…
Descriptors: Operant Conditioning, Students, Responses, Positive Reinforcement
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Thomas, Brian L.; Ayres, John J. B. – Learning and Motivation, 2004
In four experiments using albino rats in an ABA fear renewal paradigm, we studied conditioned fear in the A test context following extinction in Context B. Conditioned suppression of operant responding was the index of fear. In Experiments 1-3, we found that extinguishing a feared cue in compound with a putative conditioned inhibitor of fear led…
Descriptors: Fear, Learning Processes, Animals, Cues
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