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ERIC Number: ED564783
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2013
Pages: 36
Abstractor: As Provided
ISBN: 978-1-3036-4298-2
The Effects of Live Music as the Discriminative Stimulus and Reinforcer on the Skill Acquisition of Learners with Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Harms, Melanie D.
ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kansas
Individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders are challenged with memory and language deficits that impact their skills acquisition (Martin, Klusek, Estigarriba, & Roberts, 2009; Turner & Alborz, 2003). The value of music when applied as an antecedent and a reinforcer has long been established to address such memory and language deficits (Brownell, 2002; Kern & Aldridge, 2006; Kouri & Winn, 2006; Lim & Draper, 2011; Register, Darrow, Standley, & Swedberg, 2007; Schwartzberg & Silverman, 2012, 2013; Sena-Moore, Peterson, O'Shea, McIntosh, & Thaut, 2008; Simpson & Keen, 2010; Thaut, Peterson, Sena-Moore, & McIntosh, 2008). Related to this literature, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of live music when applied as the discriminative stimulus and reinforcer on the skills acquisition of learners with neurodevelopmental disorders. Effects were compared across four conditions: (a) verbal delivery of both a discriminative stimulus and reinforcer (S[superscript D][subscript V] :R[subscript V]), (b) verbal delivery of a discriminative stimulus and live music delivery of a reinforcer (S[superscript D][subscript V]:R[subscript M]), (c) live music delivery of a discriminative stimulus and verbal delivery of a reinforcer (S[superscript D][subscript M]:R[subscript V]), and (d) live music delivery of both a discriminative stimulus and reinforcer (S[superscript D][subscript M]:R[subscript M]). The initial question investigated whether there were any differences between means across the four conditions. The results of a two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance determined the four conditions did indeed vary from one another as evidenced by the large effect size for condition and time. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to determine if differences across conditions were present. These results indicated that all four conditions yielded improved outcomes across time or sessions. Upon comparison of pairs of conditions, the most effective conditions was deemed the combined form of live music as both the discriminative stimulus/ antecedent and the reinforcer/feedback (S[superscript D][subscript M]:R[subscript M]). The verbal SD and live music R (S[superscript D][subscript V]:R[subscript M]) condition was next best, followed by live music SD and verbal R (S[superscript D][subscript M]:R[subscript V]) and verbal S D and verbal R (S[superscript D][subscript V]:R[subscript V]). Further research that isolates the music variables is recommended. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site:
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A