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Deane, Paul; O'Reilly, Tenaha; Chao, Szu-Fu; Dreier, Kelsey – ETS Research Report Series, 2018
The purpose of the report is to explore some of the mechanisms involved in the writing process. In particular, we examine students' process data (keystroke log analysis) to uncover how students approach a knowledge-telling task using 2 different task types. In the first task, students were asked to list as many words as possible related to a…
Descriptors: Writing Processes, Responses, Prior Learning, Task Analysis
Deane, Paul; O'Reilly, Tenaha; Chao, Szu-Fu; Dreier, Kelsey – Grantee Submission, 2018
The purpose of the report is to explore some of the mechanisms involved in the writing process. In particular, we examine students' process data (keystroke log analysis) to uncover how students approach a knowledge-telling task using 2 different task types. In the first task, students were asked to list as many words as possible related to a…
Descriptors: Writing Processes, Prior Learning, Task Analysis, High School Students
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Sinharay, Sandip; Zhang, Mo; Deane, Paul – Applied Measurement in Education, 2019
Analysis of keystroke logging data is of increasing interest, as evident from a substantial amount of recent research on the topic. Some of the research on keystroke logging data has focused on the prediction of essay scores from keystroke logging features, but linear regression is the only prediction method that has been used in this research.…
Descriptors: Scores, Prediction, Writing Processes, Data Analysis
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Guo, Hongwen; Zhang, Mo; Deane, Paul; Bennett, Randy E. – Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 2019
We used an unobtrusive approach, keystroke logging, to examine students' cognitive states during essay writing. Based on data contained in the logs, we classified writing process data into three states: text production, long pause, and editing. We used semi-Markov processes to model the sequences of writing states and compared the state transition…
Descriptors: Writing Processes, Cognitive Processes, Essays, Keyboarding (Data Entry)
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Zhang, Mo; Bennett, Randy E.; Deane, Paul; van Rijn, Peter W. – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2019
This study compared gender groups on the processes used in writing essays in an online assessment. Middle-school students from four grades responded to essays in two persuasive subgenres, argumentation and policy recommendation. Writing processes were inferred from four indicators extracted from students' keystroke logs. In comparison to males, on…
Descriptors: Gender Differences, Essays, Computer Assisted Testing, Persuasive Discourse
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Guo, Hongwen; Zhang, Mo; Deane, Paul; Bennett, Randy E. – Journal of Educational Data Mining, 2020
This study investigates the effects of a scenario-based assessment design on students' writing processes. An experimental data set consisting of four design conditions was used in which the number of scenarios (one or two) and the placement of the essay task with respect to the lead-in tasks (first vs. last) were varied. Students' writing…
Descriptors: Instructional Effectiveness, Vignettes, Writing Processes, Learning Analytics
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Zhu, Mengxiao; Zhang, Mo; Deane, Paul – ETS Research Report Series, 2019
The research on using event logs and item response time to study test-taking processes is rapidly growing in the field of educational measurement. In this study, we analyzed the keystroke logs collected from 761 middle school students in the United States as they completed a persuasive writing task. Seven variables were extracted from the…
Descriptors: Keyboarding (Data Entry), Data Collection, Data Analysis, Writing Processes
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Almond, Russell; Deane, Paul; Quinlan, Thomas; Wagner, Michael; Sydorenko, Tetyana – ETS Research Report Series, 2012
The Fall 2007 and Spring 2008 pilot tests for the "CBAL"™ Writing assessment included experimental keystroke logging capabilities. This report documents the approaches used to capture the keystroke logs and the algorithms used to process the outputs. It also includes some preliminary findings based on the pilot data. In particular, it…
Descriptors: Timed Tests, Writing Tests, Computer Assisted Testing, Keyboarding (Data Entry)
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Deane, Paul; Zhang, Mo – ETS Research Report Series, 2015
In this report, we examine the feasibility of characterizing writing performance using process features derived from a keystroke log. Using data derived from a set of "CBAL"™ writing assessments, we examine the following research questions: (a) How stable are the keystroke timing and process features across testing occasions?; (b) How…
Descriptors: Writing Processes, Feasibility Studies, Research Reports, Writing Achievement