ERIC Number: EJ954942
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012-Jan
Abstractor: As Provided
Effect of Growth Hormone Deficiency on Brain Structure, Motor Function and Cognition
Webb, Emma A.; O'Reilly, Michelle A.; Clayden, Jonathan D.; Seunarine, Kiran K.; Chong, Wui K.; Dale, Naomi; Salt, Alison; Clark, Chris A.; Dattani, Mehul T.
Brain, v135 n1 p216-227 Jan 2012
The growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis plays a role in normal brain growth but little is known of the effect of growth hormone deficiency on brain structure. Children with isolated growth hormone deficiency (peak growth hormone less than 6.7 [micro]g/l) and idiopathic short stature (peak growth hormone greater than 10 [micro]g/l) underwent cognitive assessment, diffusion tensor imaging and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging prior to commencing growth hormone treatment. Total brain, corpus callosal, hippocampal, thalamic and basal ganglia volumes were determined using Freesurfer. Fractional anisotropy (a marker of white matter structural integrity) images were aligned and tract-based spatial statistics performed. Fifteen children (mean 8.8 years of age) with isolated growth hormone deficiency [peak growth hormone less than 6.7 [micro]g/l (mean 3.5 [micro]g/l)] and 14 controls (mean 8.4 years of age) with idiopathic short stature [peak growth hormone greater than 10 [micro]g/l (mean 15 [micro]g/l) and normal growth rate] were recruited. Compared with controls, children with isolated growth hormone deficiency had lower Full-Scale IQ (P less than 0.01), Verbal Comprehension Index (P less than 0.01), Processing Speed Index (P less than 0.05) and Movement-Assessment Battery for Children (P less than 0.008) scores. Verbal Comprehension Index scores correlated significantly with insulin-like growth factor-1 (P less than 0.03) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (P less than 0.02) standard deviation scores in isolated growth hormone deficiency. The splenium of the corpus callosum, left globus pallidum, thalamus and hippocampus (P less than 0.01) were significantly smaller; and corticospinal tract (bilaterally; P less than 0.045, P less than 0.05) and corpus callosum (P less than 0.05) fractional anisotropy were significantly lower in the isolated growth hormone deficiency group. Basal ganglia volumes and bilateral corticospinal tract fractional anisotropy correlated significantly with Movement-Assessment Battery for Children scores, and corpus callosum fractional anisotropy with Full-Scale IQ and Processing Speed Index. In patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency, white matter abnormalities in the corpus callosum and corticospinal tract, and reduced thalamic and globus pallidum volumes relate to deficits in cognitive function and motor performance. Follow-up studies that investigate the course of the structural and cognitive deficits on growth hormone treatment are now required to confirm that growth hormone deficiency impacts significantly on brain structure, cognitive function and motor performance.
Descriptors: Brain, Biochemistry, Children, Psychomotor Skills, Cognitive Ability, Intelligence Quotient
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A