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Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Star, Jon R. – Journal of Educational Psychology, 2009
Researchers in both cognitive science and mathematics education emphasize the importance of comparison for learning and transfer. However, surprisingly little is known about the advantages and disadvantages of what types of things are being compared. In this experimental study, 162 seventh- and eighth-grade students learned to solve equations (a)…
Descriptors: Mathematics Education, Educational Psychology, Equations (Mathematics), Knowledge Level
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Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Star, Jon R.; Durkin, Kelley – British Journal of Educational Psychology, 2012
Background: A key learning outcome in problem-solving domains is the development of procedural flexibility, where learners know multiple procedures and use them appropriately to solve a range of problems (e.g., Verschaffel, Luwel, Torbeyns, & Van Dooren, 2009). However, students often fail to become flexible problem solvers in mathematics. To…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Grade 8, Teaching Methods, Outcomes of Education