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Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Star, Jon R. – Journal of Educational Psychology, 2009
Researchers in both cognitive science and mathematics education emphasize the importance of comparison for learning and transfer. However, surprisingly little is known about the advantages and disadvantages of what types of things are being compared. In this experimental study, 162 seventh- and eighth-grade students learned to solve equations (a)…
Descriptors: Mathematics Education, Educational Psychology, Equations (Mathematics), Knowledge Level
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Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Star, Jon R. – Journal of Educational Psychology, 2007
Encouraging students to share and compare solution methods is a key component of reform efforts in mathematics, and comparison is emerging as a fundamental learning mechanism. To experimentally evaluate the effects of comparison for mathematics learning, the authors randomly assigned 70 seventh-grade students to learn about algebra equation…
Descriptors: Mathematics Instruction, Concept Formation, Mathematical Concepts, Educational Change
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Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Star, Jon R.; Durkin, Kelley – British Journal of Educational Psychology, 2012
Background: A key learning outcome in problem-solving domains is the development of procedural flexibility, where learners know multiple procedures and use them appropriately to solve a range of problems (e.g., Verschaffel, Luwel, Torbeyns, & Van Dooren, 2009). However, students often fail to become flexible problem solvers in mathematics. To…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Grade 8, Teaching Methods, Outcomes of Education
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Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Star, Jon R.; Durkin, Kelley – Journal of Educational Psychology, 2009
Comparing multiple examples typically supports learning and transfer in laboratory studies and is considered a key feature of high-quality mathematics instruction. This experimental study investigated the importance of prior knowledge in learning from comparison. Seventh- and 8th-grade students (N = 236) learned to solve equations by comparing…
Descriptors: Mathematics Instruction, Mathematics Education, Methods, Prior Learning
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Star, Jon R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany – Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2009
Comparing and contrasting examples is a core cognitive process that supports learning in children and adults across a variety of topics. In this experimental study, we evaluated the benefits of supporting comparison in a classroom context for children learning about computational estimation. Fifth- and sixth-grade students (N = 157) learned about…
Descriptors: Mathematics Education, Problem Solving, Teaching Methods, Cognitive Processes