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ERIC Number: EJ804513
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2008
Pages: 19
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1937-6928
Rekenrek: A Manipulative Used to Teach Addition and Subtraction to Students with Learning Disabilities
Tournaki, Nelly; Bae, Young Seh; Kerekes, Judit
Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, v6 n2 p41-59 2008
This study examined the effects on math performance of the use of the rekenrek, a manipulative developed by Adrian Treffers. The rekenrek looks like an abacus, but differs in that it is based on a five-structure and not a ten-structure system. It is comprised of two rows of 10 beads, each broken into two sets of 5 by color (i.e., in each row the first 5 beads are red and the next 5 are white). Forty-five students with learning disabilities were divided into three equivalent groups based on their pretest scores: Group 1 received instruction using rekenrek, Group 2 received instruction without rekenrek, and Group 3 received no instruction. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by the Scheffe post-hoc test. Results indicated that students in Group 1 scored significantly higher on an addition and subtraction test with numbers from zero to 20 than did students in either Group 2 or 3. Use of multiple-regression analysis confirmed that the results were significant and meaningful. The advantages of the rekenrek and the implications of the study for math instruction within the Realistic Mathematics Education model are addressed. (Contains 4 figures and 4 tables.)
Learning Disabilities Worldwide, Inc. P.O. Box 142, Weston, MA 02493. Tel: 781-890-5399; Fax: 781-890-0555; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 1
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: New York
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children; Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement