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Zuckerman, G. A.; Obukhova, O. L. – Russian Education & Society, 2015
D. Elkonin's thesis that thinking is much more closely related to writing than to oral speech formed the basis of our three-year formative experiment at the elementary school level. In order to test this idea, second-graders through fourth-graders were given a few assignments in which they were asked to exchange thoughts in writing with their…
Descriptors: Writing Skills, Skill Development, Elementary School Students, Russian
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Veraksa, Aleksander; Veraksa, Nikolay – European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 2016
This article defines the concepts related to symbolic and sign representations, cognition and learning in the early years. The first study experiment of teaching 33 preschool children (19 boys and 14 girls; M = 68, 5 months) the notion of rainbow phenomenon proved the equal effectiveness of the use of both sign and symbolic tools. The second study…
Descriptors: Nouns, Language Acquisition, Preschool Children, Elementary School Students