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Cobb, Paul – Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 1991

Challenged is the traditional model for the transmission of mathematics in the elementary school classroom. An inquiry approach to learning mathematics is proposed and supported with results of a year long research project that exposed second graders to mathematical learning experiences using this approach. (MDH)

Descriptors: Beliefs, Cognitive Development, Cognitive Processes, Concept Formation

Maksimov, L. K. – Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 1993

Describes a method of teaching the order of mathematical operations based upon the psychological theory of conceptual generalization. (MDH)

Descriptors: Cognitive Development, Computation, Concept Formation, Elementary Education

Hunt, Glen E. – Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 1985

Provides a review of the literature related to math anxiety, indicating that society needs to eradicate the myth that females are more anxious about mathematics than males. Several options for eliminating math avoidance and math anxiety are considered. (JN)

Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Females, Literature Reviews, Mathematics Achievement

Bradley, Carol A. – Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 1990

Explored were the relationships among students' mathematics language facility, procedural mathematics knowledge, and understanding and application of mathematics concepts. Findings indicate that students needed both procedural knowledge and language facility in mathematics for an acceptable level of conceptual achievement. (CW)

Descriptors: Cognitive Development, Cognitive Structures, Computational Linguistics, Grade 7

Mestre, Jose; Gerace, William – Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 1986

This study investigated the performance of 14 Hispanic and Anglo ninth graders on several problem-solving tasks, with the focus on the interplay of language-related factors in translating several mathematical statements expressing relationships among variables into mathematical equations. (MNS)

Descriptors: Educational Research, Equations (Mathematics), Grade 9, Hispanic Americans

Ashlock, Robert B. – Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 1987

Considered are three different types of paper-and-pencil items: labeled word statements, symbolizations, and portrayals. The items are used for testing understanding of mathematical concepts. Limitations of pencil-and-paper items are noted. (RH)

Descriptors: Concept Formation, Elementary Education, Elementary School Mathematics, Mathematical Concepts

Harris, Mary Jo; VanDevender, Evelyn M. – Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 1990

Identifies four causes of confusion in reading mathematics related to numbers, symbols and sentences, vocabulary, and directionality. Discusses techniques for overcoming each type of the confusion. (YP)

Descriptors: Arithmetic, Computation, Elementary Education, Elementary School Mathematics

Pothier, Yvonne; Sawada, Daiyo – Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 1989

The focus of this article is on the verification processes children use when assessing the equality of parts produced by them when partitioning geometric shapes. Different processes and children's verbal proofs of equality are presented. Activities for mathematics instruction are suggested. (YP)

Descriptors: Concept Formation, Elementary Education, Elementary School Mathematics, Fractions

Bright, George W. – Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 1987

How computers have affected diagnosis in mathematics is discussed. A distinction is made between errors and mistakes, followed by consideration of computers as a diagnostic tool. The development of algorithms to diagnose errors and of models of student performance is described. (MNS)

Descriptors: Cognitive Development, Computer Assisted Instruction, Diagnostic Teaching, Elementary Secondary Education

Beattie, Ian D.; Scheer, Janet K. – Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 1985

Discusses the nature and importance of iconic learning (image-related) and a medium to facilitate assessment at the iconic level of knowing. The medium consists of a series of self-inking rubber stamps made with iconic representations of numeration blocks and sticks in denominations of 1, 10, and 100. (JN)

Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Diagnostic Teaching, Educational Diagnosis, Elementary Education

Nik Pa, Nik Azis – Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 1989

Concepts of fractions from an adult perspective as well as from a child's perspective are examined. Types of students' schemes for some terms related to fractions are reported. (YP)

Descriptors: Arithmetic, Concept Formation, Elementary Education, Elementary School Mathematics

Ross, Sharon H. – Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 1990

The 5-stage model of Ross was used to examine the role of instruction in facilitating children's acquisition of place value knowledge. Compares children from 2 samples on 10 tasks designed to reveal their thinking about place value. Discusses implications for theory and classroom. (YP)

Descriptors: Arithmetic, Elementary Education, Elementary School Mathematics, Mathematical Concepts

Yarmish, Rina – Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 1990

Identified is research related to concept formation; the chronology of identity and equivalence conservations; the relationship of mental age to performance on number concept tasks; perceptual, attentional, linguistic, and social factors; and the potential use of cognitive developmental criteria as measures of ability for both normal and retarded…

Descriptors: Cognitive Development, Cognitive Structures, Elementary School Mathematics, Elementary Secondary Education

Behr, Merlyn J.; And Others – Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 1988

Children in grades four and five had instruction on fractions with a continuous manipulative aid to help transfer their knowledge to tasks with a discrete manipulative aid. Results suggest that discrete-embodiment tasks are more difficult than continuous-embodiment tasks. (MNS)

Descriptors: Educational Research, Elementary Education, Elementary School Mathematics, Fractions

delMas, Robert C.; Bart, William M. – Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 1989

Investigated are three misconceptions of probability and the differential effect of two activity-based instructional units. Response categories (law of averages, law of small numbers, and availability) are identified. Treatment differences (evaluation or no evaluation) appear to influence subjects' interpretations of the information. (YP)

Descriptors: Achievement Tests, Cognitive Structures, College Mathematics, Higher Education

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