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Lewis, Katherine E.; Fisher, Marie B. – Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 2016

Although approximately 5-8% of students have a mathematical learning disability (MLD), researchers have yet to develop a consensus operational definition. To examine how MLD has been identified and what mathematics topics have been explored, the authors conducted a systematic review of 165 studies on MLD published between 1974 and 2013. To move…

Descriptors: Mathematics Education, Mathematics, Mathematics Instruction, Learning Disabilities

Peer reviewed

Foreman-Murray, Lindsay; Fuchs, Lynn S. – Grantee Submission, 2018

Student explanations of their mathematical thinking and conclusions have become a greater part of the assessment landscape in recent years. With a sample of 71 4th-grade students at-risk for mathematics learning disabilities, we investigated the relation between student accuracy in comparing the magnitude of fractions and the quality of students'…

Descriptors: Elementary School Students, Grade 4, Elementary School Mathematics, Mathematics Skills

Hinton, Vanessa; Stroizer, Shaunita; Flores, Margaret – Investigations in Mathematics Learning, 2015

Number sense is one's ability to understand what numbers mean, perform mental mathematics, and look at the world and make comparisons. Researchers show instruction that teaches children how to classify numbers, put numbers in sequence, conserve numbers effectively, and count builds their number sense skills. Targeted instruction that teaches…

Descriptors: Computation, Case Studies, Young Children, Mathematics Instruction

Cirino, Paul T.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Elias, John T.; Powell, Sarah R.; Schumacher, Robin F. – Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2015

The purpose of this study was to compare subgroups of students with various forms of learning difficulties (< 25th percentile) on cognitive and mathematics characteristics. Students with mathematics difficulty (MD, n = 105), reading difficulty (RD, n = 65), both (MDRD, n = 87), or neither (NoLD, n = 403) were evaluated on an array of cognitive…

Descriptors: Learning Disabilities, Student Characteristics, Cognitive Ability, Mathematics Skills

Gabriel, Florence – Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 2016

Fractions are known to be difficult to learn and difficult to teach, yet they are vital for students to have access to further mathematical concepts. This article uses evidence to support teachers employing teaching methods that focus on the conceptual understanding of the magnitude of fractions.

Descriptors: Fractions, Mathematics Instruction, Mathematical Concepts, Teaching Methods

Swanson, H. Lee; Fung, Wenson – Journal of Educational Psychology, 2016

This study determined the working memory (WM) components (executive, phonological short-term memory [STM], and visual-spatial sketchpad) that best predicted mathematical word problem-solving accuracy in elementary schoolchildren (N = 392). The battery of tests administered to assess mediators between WM and problem-solving included measures of…

Descriptors: Short Term Memory, Problem Solving, Accuracy, Phonology

Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Cirino, Paul T.; Schumacher, Robin F.; Marrin, Sarah; Hamlett, Carol L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Changas, Paul C. – Journal of Educational Psychology, 2014

The focus of this study was connections among 3 aspects of mathematical cognition at 2nd grade: calculations, word problems, and prealgebraic knowledge. We extended the literature, which is dominated by correlational work, by examining whether intervention conducted on calculations or word problems contributes to improved performance in the other…

Descriptors: Computation, Word Problems (Mathematics), Mathematics Instruction, Teaching Methods

Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Wehby, Joseph; Schumacher, Robin F.; Gersten, Russell; Jordan, Nancy C. – Grantee Submission, 2015

The purpose of this analysis was to examine achievement gaps on fractions for very-low-performing students as a function of whether they receive inclusive fraction instruction or specialized fraction intervention and with the shift to Common Core State Standards (CCSS). In three randomized control trials conducted in 3 consecutive years, 203…

Descriptors: Inclusion, Intervention, Special Education, Special Education Teachers

What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

The study examined the effects of "Fraction Challenge," a supplemental small-group tutoring math program that focuses on improving student understanding of fractions. Study authors randomly assigned fourth grade "at-risk" students in 53 classrooms in 13 schools to either an intervention group that received "Fraction…

Descriptors: Tutoring, Instructional Effectiveness, Small Group Instruction, Mathematics Instruction

Powell, Sarah R.; Driver, Melissa K.; Julian, Tyler E. – Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2015

Students often misinterpret the equal sign (=) as operational instead of relational. Research indicates misinterpretation of the equal sign occurs because students receive relatively little exposure to equations that promote relational understanding of the equal sign. No study, however, has examined effects of nonstandard equations on the equation…

Descriptors: Mathematics Instruction, Tutoring, Equations (Mathematics), Mathematical Concepts

Rhodes, Katherine T.; Branum-Martin, Lee; Washington, Julie A.; Fuchs, Lynn S. – Journal of Educational Psychology, 2017

Using multitrait, multimethod data, and confirmatory factor analysis, the current study examined the effects of arithmetic item formatting and the possibility that across formats, abilities other than arithmetic may contribute to children's answers. Measurement hypotheses were guided by several leading theories of arithmetic cognition. With a…

Descriptors: Arithmetic, Mathematics Tests, Test Format, Psychometrics

Namkung, Jessica M.; Fuchs, Lynn S. – Grantee Submission, 2015

The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive predictors of calculations and number line estimation with whole numbers and fractions. At-risk 4th-grade students (N = 139) were assessed on 7 domain-general abilities (i.e., working memory, processing speed, concept formation, language, attentive behavior, and nonverbal reasoning) and…

Descriptors: Predictor Variables, At Risk Students, Grade 4, Elementary School Students

Malone, Amelia S.; Fuchs, Lynn S. – Remedial and Special Education, 2014

The purpose of this study was to assess the relative contribution of teacher and tutor ratings of inattentive behavior in two different instructional settings in predicting students' performance on fraction concepts and whole-number calculations. Classroom teachers rated each student's attentive behavior in a whole-class setting and tutors rated…

Descriptors: Student Behavior, Attention Span, Grade 4, Elementary School Students

Tolar, Tammy D.; Fuchs, Lynn; Fletcher, Jack M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L. – Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2016

Three cohorts of third-grade students (N = 813) were evaluated on achievement, cognitive abilities, and behavioral attention according to contrasting research traditions in defining math learning disability (LD) status: low achievement versus extremely low achievement and IQ-achievement discrepant versus strictly low-achieving LD. We use methods…

Descriptors: Grade 3, Elementary School Students, Mathematics Instruction, Learning Disabilities

Fuchs, Lynn S.; Malone, Amelia S.; Schumacher, Robin F.; Namkung, Jessica; Hamlett, Carol L.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Siegler, Robert S.; Gersten, Russell; Changas, Paul – Journal of Educational Psychology, 2016

The main purposes of this study were to test the effects of teaching at-risk 4th graders to provide explanations for their mathematics work and examine whether those effects occur by compensating for limitations in cognitive processes. We randomly assigned 212 children to 3 conditions: a control group and 2 variants of a multicomponent fraction…

Descriptors: Grade 4, Elementary School Mathematics, Elementary School Students, Cognitive Processes

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