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Ren, Lixin; Green, Jennifer L.; Smith, Wendy M. – Mathematics Education Research Journal, 2016
The Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales (FSMAS) are among the most popular instruments used in studies of attitudes toward mathematics. However, the FSMAS has been mainly used among student populations and rarely used with teachers. In the present study, three scales from the FSMAS--"Confidence," "Effectance…
Descriptors: Attitude Measures, Mathematics, Student Attitudes, Elementary School Mathematics