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Showing 1 to 15 of 58 results Save | Export
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Xie, Jiushu; Cheung, Him; Shen, Manqiong; Wang, Ruiming – Cognitive Science, 2018
This study examines the spontaneous use of embodied egocentric transformation (EET) in understanding false beliefs in the minds of others. EET involves the participants mentally transforming or rotating themselves into the orientation of an agent when trying to adopt his or her visuospatial perspective. We argue that psychological perspective…
Descriptors: Spatial Ability, Visualization, Beliefs, Perspective Taking
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Moon, Jung Aa; Keehner, Madeleine; Katz, Irvin R. – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2019
The current study investigated how item formats and their inherent affordances influence test-takers' cognition under uncertainty. Adult participants solved content-equivalent math items in multiple-selection multiple-choice and four alternative grid formats. The results indicated that participants' affirmative response tendency (i.e., judge the…
Descriptors: Affordances, Test Items, Test Format, Test Wiseness
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Kumar, Abhilasha A.; Balota, David A.; Habbert, Julia; Scaltritti, Michele; Maddox, Geoffrey B. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2019
The present experiments investigated the influence of combined phonological and semantic information on lexical retrieval, metacognitive retrieval states, and selection in an immediate multiple-choice task. Younger and older adults attempted to retrieve words (e.g., abdicate) from low-frequency word definitions. Retrieval was preceded by primes…
Descriptors: Semantics, Phonology, Language Processing, Metacognition
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Weine, Erienne R.; Kim, Nancy S. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2019
In accord with classic schema theory, people are susceptible to forming false memories that align with stored schema representations (Brewer & Treyens, 1981). Furthermore, clinicians schematize mental disorders as causal networks of features (de Kwaadsteniet, Hagmayer, Krol, & Witteman, 2010; Kim & Ahn, 2002). We asked whether one…
Descriptors: Memory, Schemata (Cognition), Mental Disorders, Causal Models
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Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil – Brain and Cognition, 2012
The effects of saccadic bilateral (horizontal) eye movements on true and false memory in adults and children were investigated. Both adults and children encoded lists of associated words in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm followed by a test of recognition memory. Just prior to retrieval, participants were asked to engage in 30 s of bilateral…
Descriptors: Eye Movements, Recognition (Psychology), Human Body, Memory
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Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Knott, Lauren M.; Howe, Mark L. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2011
Three experiments investigated the effects of test-induced priming (TIP) on false recognition in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott procedure (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995). In Experiment 1, TIP significantly increased false recognition for participants who made old/new decisions at test but not for participants who made remember/know…
Descriptors: Priming, Item Response Theory, Experiments, Memory
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Van Reet, Jennifer; Green, Kathryn F.; Sobel, David M. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2015
Two experiments examined whether particular aspects of social-cognitive knowledge predicted how preschoolers would treat informants who displayed a more or less developed understanding of that knowledge. In Experiment 1, children's own success on false-belief measures correlated with the extent to which they endorsed information generated by a…
Descriptors: Preschool Children, Theory of Mind, Trust (Psychology), Correlation
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Campbell, Karen L.; Trelle, Alexandra; Hasher, Lynn – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2014
Older adults show hyper- (or excessive) binding effects for simultaneously and sequentially presented distraction. Here, we addressed the potential role of hyper-binding in paired-associate learning. Older and younger adults learned a list of word pairs and then received an associative recognition task in which rearranged pairs were formed from…
Descriptors: Age Differences, Paired Associate Learning, Time, Older Adults
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Phillips, Louise H.; Bull, Rebecca; Allen, Roy; Insch, Pauline; Burr, Kirsty; Ogg, Will – Cognition, 2011
Older adults often perform poorly on Theory of Mind (ToM) tests that require understanding of others' beliefs and intentions. The course and specificity of age changes in belief reasoning across the adult lifespan is unclear, as is the cause of the age effects. Cognitive and neuropsychological models predict that two types of processing might…
Descriptors: Theory of Mind, Beliefs, Cognitive Processes, Adults
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Lucas, Amanda J.; Lewis, Charlie; Pala, F. Cansu; Wong, Katie; Berridge, Damon – Developmental Psychology, 2013
Research on preschoolers' selective learning has mostly been conducted in English-speaking countries. We compared the performance of Turkish preschoolers (who are exposed to a language with evidential markers), Chinese preschoolers (known to be advanced in executive skills), and English preschoolers on an extended selective trust task (N = 144).…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Preschool Children, Executive Function, Comparative Analysis
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Lin, Hsuan-Yu; Oberauer, Klaus – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2019
We constructed 4 working memory recognition models to predict behavior in the local recognition task (also called change detection), in which both content (e.g., color) and context (e.g., location) information are necessary to make correct recognition decisions. The theoretical assumptions incorporated in the models come from crossing 2 contrasts:…
Descriptors: Short Term Memory, Tests, Memory, Models
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Apperly, Ian A.; Back, Elisa; Samson, Dana; France, Lisa – Cognition, 2008
Much of what we know about other people's beliefs comes non-inferentially from what people tell us. Developmental research suggests that 3-year-olds have difficulty processing such information: they suffer interference from their own knowledge of reality when told about someone's false belief (e.g., [Wellman, H. M., & Bartsch, K. (1988). Young…
Descriptors: Cognitive Development, Validity, Cognitive Structures, Misconceptions
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Otgaar, Henry; Smeets, Tom – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2010
Research has shown that processing information in a survival context can enhance the information's memorability. The current study examined whether survival processing can also decrease the susceptibility to false memories and whether the survival advantage can be found in children. In Experiment 1, adults rated semantically related words in a…
Descriptors: Word Lists, Recall (Psychology), Cognitive Processes, Experiments
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Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2015
One of the major debates concerning the nature of inferential reasoning is between counterexample-based theories such as mental model theory and probabilistic theories. This study looks at conclusion updating after the addition of statistical information to examine the hypothesis that deductive reasoning cannot be explained by probabilistic…
Descriptors: Logical Thinking, Theories, Bayesian Statistics, Probability
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Howe, Mark L.; Derbish, Mary H. – Cognition, 2010
Previous research has shown that survival-related processing of word lists enhances retention for that material. However, the claim that survival-related memories are more accurate has only been examined when true recall and recognition of neutral material has been measured. In the current experiments, we examined the adaptive memory superiority…
Descriptors: Word Lists, Memory, Cognitive Processes, Retention (Psychology)
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