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Kinloch, Jennifer M.; Foster, T. Mary; McEwan, James S. A. – Psychological Record, 2009
Participants earned points by pressing a computer space bar (Experiment 1) or forming rectangles on the screen with the mouse (Experiment 2) under differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedules, followed by extinction. Variability in interresponse time (the contingent dimension) increased during extinction, as for Morgan and Lee (1996);…
Descriptors: Behavior Modification, Reinforcement, Experiments, Adults
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Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Gilbertson, Mark W.; Orr, Scott P.; Herzallah, Mohammad M.; Servatius, Richard J.; Myers, Catherine E. – Brain and Cognition, 2013
Empirical research has shown that the amygdala, hippocampus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) are involved in fear conditioning. However, the functional contribution of each brain area and the nature of their interactions are not clearly understood. Here, we extend existing neural network models of the functional roles of the hippocampus…
Descriptors: Prediction, Animals, Fear, Classical Conditioning
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Winterbauer, Neil E.; Lucke, Sara; Bouton, Mark E. – Learning and Motivation, 2013
In resurgence, an operant behavior that has undergone extinction can return ("resurge") when a second operant that has replaced it itself undergoes extinction. The phenomenon may provide insight into relapse that may occur after incentive or contingency management therapies in humans. Three experiments with rats examined the impact of several…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Operant Conditioning, Contingency Management, Animals
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Science Teacher, 2005
Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Ecology, Animals, Conservation (Environment)
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Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.; Rosenbaum, Gail M.; Herzig, Chelsey – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2013
Substantial research has focused on the allocation of spatial attention based on goals or perceptual salience. In everyday life, however, people also direct attention using their previous experience. Here we investigate the pace at which people incidentally learn to prioritize specific locations. Participants searched for a T among Ls in a visual…
Descriptors: Attention, Bias, Spatial Ability, Experience
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Kehoe, E. James; Ludvig, Elliot A.; Sutton, Richard S. – Learning & Memory, 2014
The present experiment tested whether or not the time course of a conditioned eyeblink response, particularly its duration, would expand and contract, as the magnitude of the conditioned response (CR) changed massively during acquisition, extinction, and reacquisition. The CR duration remained largely constant throughout the experiment, while CR…
Descriptors: Conditioning, Eye Movements, Responses, Animals
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Johnson, Justin S.; Escobar, Martha; Kimble, Whitney L. – Learning & Memory, 2010
Short acquisition-extinction intervals (immediate extinction) can lead to either more or less spontaneous recovery than long acquisition-extinction intervals (delayed extinction). Using rat subjects, we observed less spontaneous recovery following immediate than delayed extinction (Experiment 1). However, this was the case only if a relatively…
Descriptors: Intervals, Learning Processes, Animals, Tests
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Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Lipatova, Olga; Miller, Ralph R. – Learning and Motivation, 2009
Three Pavlovian fear conditioning experiments with rats as subjects explored the effect of extinction in the presence of a concurrent excitor. Our aim was to explore this particular treatment, documented in previous studies to deepen extinction, with novel control groups to shed light on the processes involved in extinction. Relative to subjects…
Descriptors: Control Groups, Classical Conditioning, Animals, Experiments
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Goswami, Sonal; Cascardi, Michele; Rodriguez-Sierra, Olga E.; Duvarci, Sevil; Pare, Denis – Learning & Memory, 2010
Humans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are deficient at extinguishing conditioned fear responses. A study of identical twins concluded that this extinction deficit does not predate trauma but develops as a result of trauma. The present study tested whether the Lewis rat model of PTSD reproduces these features of the human syndrome.…
Descriptors: Twins, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Conditioning, Fear
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Kirtley, Anne; Thomas, Kerrie L. – Learning & Memory, 2010
We have previously reported that the reconsolidation and extinction of hippocampal-dependent contextual fear memory can be initiated by a single context conditioned stimulus (CS) presentation of either short or long duration, and that both processes require protein synthesis in this brain region. Furthermore, reconsolidation depends on Zif268…
Descriptors: Stimuli, Memory, Brain, Fear
Athens, Elizabeth S.; Vollmer, Timothy R. – Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2010
We manipulated relative reinforcement for problem behavior and appropriate behavior using differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) without an extinction component. Seven children with developmental disabilities participated. We manipulated duration (Experiment 1), quality (Experiment 2), delay (Experiment 3), or a combination of…
Descriptors: Behavior Problems, Developmental Disabilities, Behavior Modification, Behavior Change
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Tronson, Natalie C.; Wiseman, Shari L.; Neve, Rachael L.; Nestler, Eric J.; Olausson, Peter; Taylor, Jane R. – Learning & Memory, 2012
Cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) plays a critical role in fear memory formation. Here we determined the role of CREB selectively within the amygdala in reconsolidation and extinction of auditory fear. Viral overexpression of the inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) or the dominant-negative mCREB, specifically within the lateral…
Descriptors: Memory, Fear, Information Retrieval, Cognitive Processes
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Troisi, Joseph R., II; Bryant, Erin; Kane, Jennifer – Psychological Record, 2012
Extinction and recovery of the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine (0.3 mg/kg) was investigated with a devalued food reinforcer (rats sated). Sixteen rats were trained in a counterbalanced one manipulandum (nose-poke) drug discrimination procedure with the roles of nicotine and saline counterbalanced as S[superscript D] and S[superscript…
Descriptors: Therapy, Reinforcement, Smoking, Stimuli
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Davis, Dawn H.; Fredrick, Laura D.; Alberto, Paul A.; Gama, Roberto – Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2012
This study investigated the effects of functional communication training (FCT) implemented with concurrent schedules of differing magnitudes of reinforcement in lieu of extinction to reduce inappropriate behaviors and increase alternative mands. Participants were four adolescent students diagnosed with severe emotional and behavior disorders…
Descriptors: Behavior Problems, Mental Retardation, Behavior Disorders, Time on Task
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Campbell-Smith, Emma J.; Holmes, Nathan M.; Lingawi, Nura W.; Panayi, Marios C.; Westbrook, R. Frederick – Learning & Memory, 2015
The present study investigated how oxytocin (OT) signaling in the central (CeA) and basolateral (BLA) amygdala affects acquisition, expression, and extinction of context-conditioned fear (freezing) in rats. In the first set of experiments, acquisition of fear to a shocked context was impaired by a preconditioning infusion of synthetic OT into the…
Descriptors: Animals, Brain, Learning, Cognitive Processes
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