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Merz, Christian J.; Wolf, Oliver T. – Learning & Memory, 2019
The immediate extinction deficit describes a higher return of fear when extinction takes place immediately after fear acquisition compared to a delayed extinction design. One explanation for this phenomenon encompasses the remaining emotional arousal evoked by fear acquisition to be still present during immediate, but not delayed extinction. In…
Descriptors: Fear, Learning Processes, Task Analysis, Recall (Psychology)
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Nieto, Javier; Mason, Tere A.; Bernal-Gamboa, Rodolfo; Uengoer, Metin – Learning & Memory, 2020
In two instrumental conditioning experiments with rats, we examined the impacts of acquisition and extinction cues on ABC renewal of instrumental behavior. Animals were reinforced with food for lever pressing in one context, followed by extinction of the response in a second one. Presentations of a brief tone accompanied extinction in Experiment 1…
Descriptors: Cues, Conditioning, Animals, Animal Behavior
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Bisby, Madelyne A.; Baker, Kathryn D.; Richardson, Rick – Learning & Memory, 2018
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are considered critical for the consolidation of extinction but recent work challenges this assumption. Namely, NMDARs are not required for extinction retention in infant rats as well as when extinction training occurs for a second time (i.e., reextinction) in adult rats. In this study, a possible third instance of…
Descriptors: Fear, Learning Processes, Conditioning, Brain
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Trent, Simon; Barnes, Philip; Hall, Jeremy; Thomas, Kerrie L. – Learning & Memory, 2017
Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) supports fear memory through synaptic plasticity events requiring actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. We have previously shown that reducing hippocampal Arc levels through antisense knockdown leads to the premature extinction of contextual fear. Here we show that the AMPA receptor antagonist…
Descriptors: Fear, Memory, Learning Processes, Brain
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Williams, Amy R.; Kim, Earnest S.; Lattal, K. Matthew – Learning & Memory, 2019
A fundamental property of extinction is that the behavior that is suppressed during extinction can be unmasked through a number of postextinction procedures. Of the commonly studied unmasking procedures (spontaneous recovery, reinstatement, contextual renewal, and rapid reacquisition), rapid reacquisition is the only approach that allows a direct…
Descriptors: Fear, Conditioning, Context Effect, Memory
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Knox, Dayan; Stanfield, Briana R.; Staib, Jennifer M.; David, Nina P.; Keller, Samantha M.; DePietro, Thomas – Learning & Memory, 2016
Single prolonged stress (SPS) has been used to examine mechanisms via which stress exposure leads to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. SPS induces fear extinction retention deficits, but neural circuits critical for mediating these deficits are unknown. To address this gap, we examined the effect of SPS on neural activity in brain regions…
Descriptors: Learning Processes, Stress Variables, Stress Management, Fear
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Morís, Joaquín; Barberia, Itxaso; Vadillo, Miguel A.; Andrades, Ainhoa; López, Francisco J. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2017
Extinction is a very relevant learning phenomenon from a theoretical and applied point of view. One of its most relevant features is that relapse phenomena often take place once the extinction training has been completed. Accordingly, as extinction-based therapies constitute the most widespread empirically validated treatment of anxiety disorders,…
Descriptors: Learning Processes, Contingency Management, Undergraduate Students, Foreign Countries
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Bouchet, Courtney A.; Lloyd, Brian A.; Loetz, Esteban C.; Farmer, Caroline E.; Ostrovskyy, Mykola; Haddad, Natalie; Foright, Rebecca M.; Greenwood, Benjamin N. – Learning & Memory, 2017
Fear extinction-based exposure therapy is the most common behavioral therapy for anxiety and trauma-related disorders, but fear extinction memories are labile and fear tends to return even after successful extinction. The relapse of fear contributes to the poor long-term efficacy of exposure therapy. A single session of voluntary exercise can…
Descriptors: Fear, Intervention, Behavior Modification, Anxiety
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Vazquez, Maribel; Frazier, Jessica H.; Reichel, Carmela M.; Peters, Jamie – Learning & Memory, 2020
Females are at higher risk for certain opioid addictive behaviors, but the influence of ovarian hormones is unknown. In our rat model of heroin self-administration, females exhibited higher relapse rates that correlated with rates of heroin seeking on the first extinction session. We administered estradiol alone, or in combination with…
Descriptors: Females, Narcotics, Addictive Behavior, Biochemistry
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Coelho, Cesar A. O.; Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Phelps, Elizabeth A. – Learning & Memory, 2015
Fear-related behaviors are prone to relapse following extinction. We tested in humans a compound extinction design ("deepened extinction") shown in animal studies to reduce post-extinction fear recovery. Adult subjects underwent fear conditioning to a visual and an auditory conditioned stimulus (CSA and CSB, respectively) separately…
Descriptors: Stimuli, Conditioning, Fear, Metabolism
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Kwapis, Janine L.; Jarome, Timothy J.; Helmstetter, Fred J. – Learning & Memory, 2015
The extinction of delay fear conditioning relies on a neural circuit that has received much attention and is relatively well defined. Whether this established circuit also supports the extinction of more complex associations, however, is unclear. Trace fear conditioning is a better model of complex relational learning, yet the circuit that…
Descriptors: Brain Hemisphere Functions, Learning Processes, Conditioning, Role
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Archbold, Georgina E.; Dobbek, Nick; Nader, Karim – Learning & Memory, 2013
Evidence suggests that extinction is new learning. Memory acquisition involves both short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) components; however, few studies have examined early phases of extinction retention. Retention of auditory fear extinction was examined at various time points. Shortly (1-4 h) after extinction acquisition…
Descriptors: Learning Processes, Memory, Retention (Psychology), Fear
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Burt, Jonathan L.; Pennington, Robert C. – Intervention in School and Clinic, 2017
The use of extinction procedures or the discontinuation of reinforcement following a behavior targeted for reduction is often used to enhance the efficacy of behavioral interventions. Unfortunately, the application of extinction procedures is associated with several side effects that can produce potentially harmful and counterproductive outcomes.…
Descriptors: Teaching Guides, Reinforcement, Intervention, Behavior Problems
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Almeida-Corrêa, Suellen; Moulin, Thiago C.; Carneiro, Clarissa F. D.; Gonçalves, Marina M. C.; Junqueira, Lara S.; Amaral, Olavo B. – Learning & Memory, 2015
Memory extinction involves the formation of a new associative memory that inhibits a previously conditioned association. Nonetheless, it could also depend on weakening of the original memory trace if extinction is assumed to have multiple components. The phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) has been described as being involved in extinction but not in…
Descriptors: Memory, Animals, Fear, Learning Processes
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Monti, Roque I. Ferrer; Alfei, Joaquin M.; Mugnaini, Matias; Bueno, Adrian M.; Beckers, Tom; Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Molina, Victor A. – Learning & Memory, 2017
Two experiments using rats in a contextual fear memory preparation compared two approaches to reduce conditioned fear: (1) pharmacological reconsolidation blockade and (2) reactivation-plus-extinction training. In Experiment 1, we explored different combinations of reactivation-plus-extinction parameters to reduce conditioned fear and attenuate…
Descriptors: Behavior, Fear, Memory, Drug Therapy
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