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Hayes, Scott M.; Buchler, Norbou; Stokes, Jared; Kragel, James; Cabeza, Roberto – Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2011
Although the medial-temporal lobes (MTL), PFC, and parietal cortex are considered primary nodes in the episodic memory network, there is much debate regarding the contributions of MTL, PFC, and parietal subregions to recollection versus familiarity (dual-process theory) and the feasibility of accounts on the basis of a single memory strength…
Descriptors: Recognition (Psychology), Memory, Theories, Neurological Organization
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Khemlani, Sangeet S.; Byrne, Ruth M. J.; Johnson-Laird, Philip N. – Cognitive Science, 2018
This article presents a fundamental advance in the theory of mental models as an explanation of reasoning about facts, possibilities, and probabilities. It postulates that the meanings of compound assertions, such as conditionals ("if") and disjunctions ("or"), unlike those in logic, refer to conjunctions of epistemic…
Descriptors: Form Classes (Languages), Schemata (Cognition), Inferences, Prediction
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Oberauer, Klaus – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2008
Three experiments with short-term recognition tasks are reported. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants decided whether a probe matched a list item specified by its spatial location. Items presented at study in a different location (intrusion probes) had to be rejected. Serial position curves of positive, new, and intrusion probes over the probed…
Descriptors: Phonology, Familiarity, Serial Ordering, Experiments
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Onyper, Serge V.; Zhang, Yaofei X.; Howard, Marc W. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2010
Dual-process theory hypothesizes that recognition memory depends on 2 distinguishable memory signals. Recollection reflects conscious recovery of detailed information about the learning episode. Familiarity reflects a memory signal that is not accompanied by a vivid conscious experience but nonetheless enables participants to distinguish recently…
Descriptors: Recognition (Psychology), Memory, Recall (Psychology), Familiarity
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Glock, Sabine; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine – Social Psychology of Education: An International Journal, 2014
Teachers develop stereotypical expectations about students, but this categorical knowledge can influence their judgments about students. Although teachers' stereotypical expectations about students have been investigated in the educational domain, this research has mostly measured only the teachers' judgments. However, the judgment is…
Descriptors: Minority Group Students, Stereotypes, Socioeconomic Background, Cognitive Processes
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De Neys, Wim; Glumicic, Tamara – Cognition, 2008
Popular dual process theories have characterized human thinking as an interplay between an intuitive-heuristic and demanding-analytic reasoning process. Although monitoring the output of the two systems for conflict is crucial to avoid decision making errors there are some widely different views on the efficiency of the process. Kahneman…
Descriptors: Cues, Psychologists, Conflict, Heuristics
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Shaw, Leigh A.; Amsel, Eric; Schillo, Joshua – Journal of Research on Adolescence, 2011
This study explored relations among late adolescents' sociomoral reasoning about risk taking, risk stance, and behavior. One-hundred and thirty-two participants (18-20-year-olds) were surveyed about their own risk stance (Avoidant, Opportunistic, Curious, Risk Seeking) and behavior in three realms (Alcohol Use, Drug Use, Reckless Driving), and…
Descriptors: Late Adolescents, Logical Thinking, Moral Values, Risk
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Selmeczy, Diana; Dobbins, Ian G. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2014
The Remember/Know procedure, developed by Tulving (1985) to capture the distinction between the conscious correlates of episodic and semantic retrieval, has spawned considerable research and debate. However, only a handful of reports have examined the recognition content beyond this dichotomous simplification. To address this, we collected…
Descriptors: Memory, Recognition (Psychology), Semantics, Word Frequency
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Berry, Christopher J.; Shanks, David R.; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Henson, Richard N. A. – Psychological Review, 2012
We present a new modeling framework for recognition memory and repetition priming based on signal detection theory. We use this framework to specify and test the predictions of 4 models: (a) a single-system (SS) model, in which one continuous memory signal drives recognition and priming; (b) a multiple-systems-1 (MS1) model, in which completely…
Descriptors: Priming, Recognition (Psychology), Models, Prediction
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Parks, Colleen M. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2013
Research examining the importance of surface-level information to familiarity in recognition memory tasks is mixed: Sometimes it affects recognition and sometimes it does not. One potential explanation of the inconsistent findings comes from the ideas of dual process theory of recognition and the transfer-appropriate processing framework, which…
Descriptors: Transfer of Training, Memory, Familiarity, Perception
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Kaufman, Scott Barry – Journal of Creative Behavior, 2013
Openness to experience is the broadest personality domain of the Big Five, including a mix of traits relating to intellectual curiosity, intellectual interests, perceived intelligence, imagination, creativity, artistic and aesthetic interests, emotional and fantasy richness, and unconventionality. Likewise, creative achievement is a broad…
Descriptors: Creativity, Factor Analysis, Cognitive Ability, Intellectual Experience
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Koen, Joshua D.; Yonelinas, Andrew P. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2010
It is well established that the memory strength of studied items is more variable than the strength of new items on tests of recognition memory, but the reason why this occurs is poorly understood. One account for this old "item variance effect" is based on single-process theory, which proposes that this effect is due to variability in how well…
Descriptors: Test Items, Familiarity, Recognition (Psychology), Regression (Statistics)
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Wixted, John T. – Psychological Review, 2007
Two influential models of recognition memory, the unequal-variance signal-detection model and a dual-process threshold/detection model, accurately describe the receiver operating characteristic, but only the latter model can provide estimates of recollection and familiarity. Such estimates often accord with those provided by the remember-know…
Descriptors: Familiarity, Brain, Recognition (Psychology), Models
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Greene, Joshua D.; Morelli, Sylvia A.; Lowenberg, Kelly; Nystrom, Leigh E.; Cohen, Jonathan D. – Cognition, 2008
Traditional theories of moral development emphasize the role of controlled cognition in mature moral judgment, while a more recent trend emphasizes intuitive and emotional processes. Here we test a dual-process theory synthesizing these perspectives. More specifically, our theory associates utilitarian moral judgment (approving of harmful actions…
Descriptors: Value Judgment, Cognitive Processes, Moral Development, Schemata (Cognition)
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Vaisey, Stephen; Lizardo, Omar – Social Forces, 2010
Most sociological research assumes that social network composition shapes individual beliefs. Network theory and research has not adequately considered that internalized cultural worldviews might affect network composition. Drawing on a synthetic, dual-process theory of culture and two waves of nationally-representative panel data, this article…
Descriptors: Social Structure, Cultural Influences, Interdisciplinary Approach, World Views
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