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Karlson, Kristian Bernt; Popham, Frank; Holm, Anders – Sociological Methods & Research, 2023
This article presents two ways of quantifying confounding using logistic response models for binary outcomes. Drawing on the distinction between marginal and conditional odds ratios in statistics, we define two corresponding measures of confounding (marginal and conditional) that can be recovered from a simple standardization approach. We…
Descriptors: Statistical Analysis, Probability, Standards, Mediation Theory
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Francis L. Huang – Large-scale Assessments in Education, 2024
The use of large-scale assessments (LSAs) in education has grown in the past decade though analysis of LSAs using multilevel models (MLMs) using R has been limited. A reason for its limited use may be due to the complexity of incorporating both plausible values and weighted analyses in the multilevel analyses of LSA data. We provide additional…
Descriptors: Hierarchical Linear Modeling, Evaluation Methods, Educational Assessment, Data Analysis
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Richard Breen; John Ermisch – Sociological Methods & Research, 2024
We consider the problem of bias arising from conditioning on a post-outcome collider. We illustrate this with reference to Elwert and Winship (2014) but we go beyond their study to investigate the extent to which inverse probability weighting might offer solutions. We use linear models to derive expressions for the bias arising in different kinds…
Descriptors: Probability, Statistical Bias, Weighted Scores, Least Squares Statistics
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Sanghyun Hong; W. Robert Reed – Research Synthesis Methods, 2024
This study builds on the simulation framework of a recent paper by Stanley and Doucouliagos ("Research Synthesis Methods" 2023;14;515--519). S&D use simulations to make the argument that meta-analyses using partial correlation coefficients (PCCs) should employ a "suboptimal" estimator of the PCC standard error when…
Descriptors: Meta Analysis, Correlation, Weighted Scores, Simulation
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Joseph M. Kush; Elise T. Pas; Rashelle J. Musci; Catherine P. Bradshaw – Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 2023
Propensity score matching and weighting methods are often used in observational effectiveness studies to reduce imbalance between treated and untreated groups on a set of potential confounders. However, much of the prior methodological literature on matching and weighting has yet to examine performance for scenarios with a majority of treated…
Descriptors: Probability, Observation, Weighted Scores, Monte Carlo Methods
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Steven L. Wise; G. Gage Kingsbury; Meredith L. Langi – Applied Measurement in Education, 2023
Recent research has provided evidence that performance change during a student's test event can indicate the presence of test-taking disengagement. Meaningful performance change implies that some portions of the test event reflect assumed maximum performance better than others and, because disengagement tends to diminish performance,…
Descriptors: Tests, Weighted Scores, Test Wiseness, Scoring
Patrick, Megan E.; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Berglund, Patricia; Pang, Yuk C.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Si, Yajuan – Institute for Social Research, 2023
The Monitoring the Future (MTF) study monitors historical and developmental changes in substance use prevalence among key subgroups of the general U.S. adolescent and adult population. The current study first devised and evaluated a cohort-specific pooled analysis weighing procedure for the MTF panel study that weighted back to the initial 12th…
Descriptors: Substance Abuse, Incidence, Adolescents, Adults
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Sean Joo; Montserrat Valdivia; Dubravka Svetina Valdivia; Leslie Rutkowski – Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 2024
Evaluating scale comparability in international large-scale assessments depends on measurement invariance (MI). The root mean square deviation (RMSD) is a standard method for establishing MI in several programs, such as the Programme for International Student Assessment and the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies.…
Descriptors: International Assessment, Monte Carlo Methods, Statistical Studies, Error of Measurement
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Kelly Edwards; James Soland – Educational Assessment, 2024
Classroom observational protocols, in which raters observe and score the quality of teachers' instructional practices, are often used to evaluate teachers for consequential purposes despite evidence that scores from such protocols are frequently driven by factors, such as rater and temporal effects, that have little to do with teacher quality. In…
Descriptors: Classroom Observation Techniques, Teacher Evaluation, Accuracy, Scores
Cordova, Juan Manuel – ProQuest LLC, 2023
The English Learner population (EL) in the United States continues to grow, with more than 5 million students currently identified as English Learner students. While districts and schools were held accountable for their English Learner students under the No Child Left Behind Act[superscript 4], the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA)[superscript 5]…
Descriptors: English Language Learners, State Aid, Funding Formulas, Accountability
Joseph M. Kush; Elise T. Pas; Rashelle J. Musci; Catherine P. Bradshaw – Grantee Submission, 2022
Propensity score matching and weighting methods are often used in observational effectiveness studies to reduce imbalance between treated and untreated groups on a set of potential confounders. However, much of the prior methodological literature on matching and weighting has yet to examine performance for scenarios with a majority of treated…
Descriptors: Probability, Observation, Weighted Scores, Monte Carlo Methods
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Castellano, Katherine E.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Lockwood, J. R. – Journal of Educational Measurement, 2023
The simple average of student growth scores is often used in accountability systems, but it can be problematic for decision making. When computed using a small/moderate number of students, it can be sensitive to the sample, resulting in inaccurate representations of growth of the students, low year-to-year stability, and inequities for…
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Accountability, Decision Making, Computation
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Ke-Hai Yuan; Zhiyong Zhang – Grantee Submission, 2022
Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a widely used technique for studies involving latent constructs. While covariance-based SEM (CB-SEM) permits estimating the regression relationship among latent constructs, the parameters governing this relationship do not apply to that among the scored values of the constructs, which are needed for…
Descriptors: Psychometrics, Structural Equation Models, Scores, Least Squares Statistics
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Ke-Hai Yuan; Yongfei Fang – Grantee Submission, 2023
Observational data typically contain measurement errors. Covariance-based structural equation modelling (CB-SEM) is capable of modelling measurement errors and yields consistent parameter estimates. In contrast, methods of regression analysis using weighted composites as well as a partial least squares approach to SEM facilitate the prediction and…
Descriptors: Structural Equation Models, Regression (Statistics), Weighted Scores, Comparative Analysis
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Öztürk Gübes, Nese – Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 2021
Purpose: In grading, one of the most common errors is made in combining two or more different test scores. This study aimed to investigate the agreement of grades calculated by weighting raw scores and standard scores. Research Methods: In this simulation study, data were simulated for midterm and final measurements. Nine conditions [3 (class…
Descriptors: Grading, Raw Scores, Weighted Scores, Norm Referenced Tests
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