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Powell, Teresa M.; Geronimo-Hara, Toni Rose; Tobin, Laura E.; Donoho, Carrie J.; Sheppard, Beverly D.; Walstrom, Jennifer L.; Rull, Rudolph P.; Faix, Dennis J. – Field Methods, 2023
Declining survey response rates concern researchers aiming to ensure study validity. This article tested the effectiveness of multiple pre-incentives on increasing survey response to the Millennium Cohort Study. Participants consisted of U.S. military service members and veterans, and were randomly assigned to receive a $2 bill, $5 gift card,…
Descriptors: Military Personnel, Response Rates (Questionnaires), Surveys, Incentives
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Hernandez, Nestor; Olson, Kristen; Smyth, Jolene D. – Field Methods, 2023
Questionnaire designers are encouraged to write questions as complete sentences. In self-administered surveys, incomplete question stems may reduce visual clutter but may also increase burden when respondents need to scan the response options to fully complete the question. We experimentally examine the effects of three categories of incomplete…
Descriptors: Surveys, Questionnaires, Test Construction, Reaction Time
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Malikovic, Marko; Toncic, Marko – International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 2023
In web questionnaires which are created in paging design where each question is on a separate page, a progress indicator is an element that should inform the respondent about their current position within the questionnaire. Linear progress indicators are commonly used, and sometimes fast-to-slow progress indicators are used for research purposes.…
Descriptors: Online Surveys, Internet, Response Rates (Questionnaires), Dropout Rate
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Terry A. Beehr; Minseo Kim; Ian W. Armstrong – International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 2024
Previous research extensively studied reasons for and ways to avoid low response rates, but it largely ignored the primary research issue of the degree to which response rates matter, which we address. Methodological survey research on response rates has been concerned with how to increase responsiveness and with the effects of response rates on…
Descriptors: Surveys, Response Rates (Questionnaires), Effect Size, Research Methodology
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Jochen Ranger; Christoph König; Benjamin W. Domingue; Jörg-Tobias Kuhn; Andreas Frey – Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 2024
In the existing multidimensional extensions of the log-normal response time (LNRT) model, the log response times are decomposed into a linear combination of several latent traits. These models are fully compensatory as low levels on traits can be counterbalanced by high levels on other traits. We propose an alternative multidimensional extension…
Descriptors: Models, Statistical Distributions, Item Response Theory, Response Rates (Questionnaires)
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Sun, Hanyu; Caporaso, Andrew; Cantor, David; Davis, Terisa; Blake, Kelly – Field Methods, 2023
Previous survey research has found that prompt interventions for speeding and straightlining were effective at reducing these undesirable response behaviors in web surveys. However, the effects of prompt interventions on data quality measures are mixed, and it is unclear how prompt interventions affect key survey estimates. We conducted an…
Descriptors: Prompting, Intervention, Online Surveys, Response Rates (Questionnaires)
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Schneider, Stefan; Jin, Haomiao; Orriens, Bart; Junghaenel, Doerte U.; Kapteyn, Arie; Meijer, Erik; Stone, Arthur A. – Field Methods, 2023
Researchers have become increasingly interested in response times to survey items as a measure of cognitive effort. We used machine learning to develop a prediction model of response times based on 41 attributes of survey items (e.g., question length, response format, linguistic features) collected in a large, general population sample. The…
Descriptors: Surveys, Response Rates (Questionnaires), Test Items, Artificial Intelligence
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Brenner, Philip S.; Buskirk, Trent D. – Field Methods, 2022
We tested a novel extension to mailed invitations to a web-push survey, using a postcard invitation to deliver a scratch-off giftcode incentive similar to an instant-win lottery ticket. Scratch-off postcards were included as one of five conditions in randomized survey experiment varying two mailing types (letter and postcard) and three incentive…
Descriptors: Incentives, Response Rates (Questionnaires), Cost Effectiveness, Letters (Correspondence)
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Jean Philippe Décieux; Andreas Heinz – International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 2024
In times of decreasing response rates and survey participation, many 'best-practices' have been developed for increasing survey recruitment. However, most of these have never been adequately and experimentally scrutinized for their efficacy. Therefore, in this research note, we draw on probability-based data of an online panel and experimentally…
Descriptors: Scheduling, Online Surveys, Response Rates (Questionnaires), Communication Strategies
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Lewis, Taylor; McMichael, Joseph – Field Methods, 2023
Expected yield rates are essential to a survey's data collection plan, as they inform requisite sample sizes to meet the survey's objectives. Given an overall expected yield rate for a self-administered mail survey, this short take describes a simple method for using the Census Planning Database to assign differential yield rates to lower-level…
Descriptors: Mail Surveys, Data Collection, Census Figures, Databases
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Haas, Georg-Christoph; Volkert, Marieke; Senghaas, Monika – Field Methods, 2023
Even small monetary incentives, e.g., a one-dollar bill in a postal invitation letter, can increase the response rate in a web survey. However, in the euro currency area, the smallest amount of monetary incentive for a postal invitation is a five-euro bill, which is costly. As such, we conducted a random experiment with prepaid stamp and postcard…
Descriptors: Online Surveys, Incentives, Response Rates (Questionnaires), Costs
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Hooghe, Marc; Stiers, Dieter – Field Methods, 2023
When conducting a postal survey, a traditional recommendation is to use paper postage stamps instead of an automated postage system, to make sure that invitations have a more personal and attractive appearance. In this research note, we investigate whether this traditional recommendation is still valid. In the autumn of 2020, a postal survey was…
Descriptors: Mail Surveys, Response Rates (Questionnaires), High School Teachers, Foreign Countries
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Si, Yajuan; Little, Roderick J. A.; Mo, Ya; Sedransk, Nell – Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 2023
Nonresponse bias is a widely prevalent problem for data on education. We develop a ten-step exemplar to guide nonresponse bias analysis (NRBA) in cross-sectional studies and apply these steps to the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011. A key step is the construction of indices of nonresponse bias based on proxy…
Descriptors: Educational Assessment, Response Rates (Questionnaires), Bias, Children
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Dey, Michelle; Marti, Laurent; Helbling, Laura Alexandra; Jorm, Anthony Francis – International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 2022
Response rates in epidemiological studies have generally been decreasing over the past decades. However, when the target group consists of adolescents and young adults, school-based surveys have hitherto been able to mitigate this problem: This age group can be reached relatively easy in the school context (e.g., as compared to reaching them by…
Descriptors: Response Rates (Questionnaires), Student Surveys, Epidemiology, Predictor Variables
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Hsieh, Shu-Hui; Lee, Shen-Ming; Li, Chin-Shang – Sociological Methods & Research, 2022
Surveys of income are complicated by the sensitive nature of the topic. The problem researchers face is how to encourage participants to respond and to provide truthful responses in surveys. To correct biases induced by nonresponse or underreporting, we propose a two-stage multilevel randomized response (MRR) technique to investigate the true…
Descriptors: Income, Surveys, Response Rates (Questionnaires), Response Style (Tests)
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