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Lubczyk, Till; Lukács, Gáspár; Ansorge, Ulrich – Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2022
The response time concealed information test (RT-CIT) can reveal that a person recognizes a relevant item (probe) among other, irrelevant items, based on slower responding to the probe compared to the irrelevant items. Thereby, if this person is concealing knowledge about the relevance of this item (e.g., recognizing it as a murder weapon), this…
Descriptors: Reaction Time, Recognition (Psychology), Accuracy, Deception
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Chan, Louis K. H.; Chan, Winnie W. L. – Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2022
From infrared body temperature surveillance to lifeguarding, real-life visual search is usually continuous and comes with rare targets. Previous research has examined realistic search tasks involving separate slides (such as baggage screening and radiography), but search tasks that require continuous monitoring have generally received less…
Descriptors: Visual Perception, Identification, Reaction Time, Color
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Zopluoglu, Cengiz; Kasli, Murat; Toton, Sarah L. – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2021
Response time information has recently attracted significant attention in the literature as it may provide meaningful information about item preknowledge. The methods that use response time information to identify examinees with potential item preknowledge make an implicit assumption that the examinees with item preknowledge differ in their…
Descriptors: Reaction Time, Cheating, Test Items
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Gorney, Kylie; Wollack, James A. – Journal of Educational Measurement, 2022
Detection methods for item preknowledge are often evaluated in simulation studies where models are used to generate the data. To ensure the reliability of such methods, it is crucial that these models are able to accurately represent situations that are encountered in practice. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical analysis of…
Descriptors: Prior Learning, Simulation, Models, Reaction Time
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Ramírez-Ruiz, Jorge; Moreno-Bote, Rubén – Cognitive Science, 2022
When facing many options, we narrow down our focus to very few of them. Although behaviors like this can be a sign of heuristics, they can actually be optimal under limited cognitive resources. Here, we study the problem of how to optimally allocate limited sampling time to multiple options, modeled as accumulators of noisy evidence, to determine…
Descriptors: Decision Making, Heuristics, Cognitive Processes, Models
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Laxton, Victoria; Mackenzie, Andrew K.; Crundall, David – Applied Cognitive Psychology, 2022
Lifeguard drowning detection in swimming pools and beach settings is influenced by experience. The current experiment explores the cognitive skills that might underlie this experience effect. Lifeguard and non-lifeguard performance in a domain-free multiple object avoidance (MOA) task and a partially domain-free functional field of view (FFOV)…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Safety, Identification, Victims
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Deribo, Tobias; Kroehne, Ulf; Goldhammer, Frank – Journal of Educational Measurement, 2021
The increased availability of time-related information as a result of computer-based assessment has enabled new ways to measure test-taking engagement. One of these ways is to distinguish between solution and rapid guessing behavior. Prior research has recommended response-level filtering to deal with rapid guessing. Response-level filtering can…
Descriptors: Guessing (Tests), Models, Reaction Time, Statistical Analysis
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Crowe, Emily M.; Howard, Christina J.; Gilchrist, Iain D.; Kent, Christopher – Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2021
Visual search in dynamic environments, for example lifeguarding or CCTV monitoring, has several fundamentally different properties to standard visual search tasks. The visual environment is constantly moving, a range of items could become targets and the task is to search for a certain event. We developed a novel task in which participants were…
Descriptors: Visual Perception, Motion, Change, Reaction Time
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Rios, Joseph A. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2022
The presence of rapid guessing (RG) presents a challenge to practitioners in obtaining accurate estimates of measurement properties and examinee ability. In response to this concern, researchers have utilized response times as a proxy of RG and have attempted to improve parameter estimation accuracy by filtering RG responses using popular scoring…
Descriptors: Guessing (Tests), Classification, Accuracy, Computation
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Lukács, Gáspár – Applied Cognitive Psychology, 2021
The response time-based concealed information test can reveal when a person recognizes a relevant item among other, irrelevant items, based on comparatively slower responding. Thereby, if a person is concealing the knowledge about the relevance of this item (e.g., recognizing it as a murder weapon), this deception can be revealed. A recent study,…
Descriptors: Cognitive Tests, Reaction Time, Deception, Recognition (Psychology)
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Rawal, Amit; Tseng, Philip – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2021
Visual statistical learning (VSL) occurs when participants are exposed to spatially or temporally ordered stimuli, and become increasingly sensitive to them without explicitly realizing the hidden regularities. In the temporal domain of VSL, participants are usually exposed to shape-triplets, followed by the use of familiarity judgments and…
Descriptors: Visual Learning, Incidental Learning, Difficulty Level, Reaction Time
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Deppermann, Arnulf; Schmidt, Axel – Discourse Processes: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 2021
Our study deals with early bodily responses to directives (requests and instructions, i.e., second pair parts [SPPs]) produced before the first pair part (FPP) is complete. We show how early bodily SPPs build on the properties of an emerging FPP. Our focus is on the successive incremental coordination of components of the FPP with components of…
Descriptors: Reaction Time, Responses, Human Body, Coordination
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Deppermann, Arnulf; Mondada, Lorenza; Doehler, Simona Pekarek – Discourse Processes: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 2021
This special issue investigates early responses--responsive actions that (start to) unfold while the production of the responded-to turn and action is still under way. Although timing in human conduct has gained intense interest in research, the early production of responsive actions has so far largely remained unexplored. But what makes early…
Descriptors: Responses, Reaction Time, Interpersonal Relationship, Human Body
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Domingue, Benjamin W.; Kanopka, Klint; Stenhaug, Ben; Soland, James; Kuhfeld, Megan; Wise, Steve; Piech, Chris – Journal of Educational Measurement, 2021
The more frequent collection of response time data is leading to an increased need for an understanding of how such data can be included in measurement models. Models for response time have been advanced, but relatively limited large-scale empirical investigations have been conducted. We take advantage of a large data set from the adaptive NWEA…
Descriptors: Achievement Tests, Reaction Time, Reading Tests, Accuracy
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Fosco, Whitney D.; Meisel, Samuel N.; Weigard, Alexander; White, Corey N.; Colder, Craig R. – Developmental Science, 2022
Studies of reward effects on behavior in adolescence typically rely on performance metrics that confound myriad cognitive and non-cognitive processes, making it challenging to determine which process is impacted by reward. The present longitudinal study applied the diffusion decision model to a reward task to isolate the influence of reward on…
Descriptors: Adolescents, Rewards, Behavior, Reaction Time
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