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Kerr-German, Anastasia; Namuth, August; Santosa, Hendrik; Buss, Aaron T.; White, Stuart – Developmental Science, 2022
Inhibitory control (IC) emerges in infancy, continues to develop throughout childhood and is linked to later life outcomes such as school achievement, prosocial behavior, and psychopathology. Little, however, is known about the neural processes underpinning IC, especially in 2-year-olds. In this study, we examine functional connectivity (FC) in…
Descriptors: Inhibition, Toddlers, Child Development, Brain Hemisphere Functions
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Radiske, Andressa; Gonzalez, Maria Carolina; Nôga, Diana A.; Rossato, Janine I.; Bevilaqua, Lia R. M.; Cammarota, Martín – Learning & Memory, 2021
Fear-motivated avoidance extinction memory is prone to hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent reconsolidation upon recall. Here, we show that extinction memory recall activates mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in dorsal CA1, and that post-recall inhibition of this kinase hinders avoidance extinction memory persistence…
Descriptors: Memory, Fear, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Recall (Psychology)
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Neroni, Maria Adriana; Crilly, Nathan – Journal of Creative Behavior, 2021
Creative behavior can be inhibited by fixation and so reducing fixation is a focus of much creativity research. One of the most common methods of tackling fixation is to warn people of fixation risks and instruct them to avoid constrained problem framing and solution search. However, such treatments are often ineffective. One possible explanation…
Descriptors: Creativity, Inhibition, Risk, Motivation
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Biggs, Adam T. – Applied Cognitive Psychology, 2022
Inhibitory control has been identified as a prominent factor in shoot/don't-shoot errors. Although emerging evidence continues to support this relationship, there is critical nuance and depth that can significantly alter this connection between a cognitive capability and a critical real-world application. For example, presenting shoot/don't-shoot…
Descriptors: Inhibition, Self Control, Decision Making, Cognitive Processes
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Friehs, Maximilian A.; Dechant, Martin; Schäfer, Sarah; Mandryk, Regan L. – Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2022
One important aspect of cognitive control is the ability to stop a response in progress and motivational aspects, such as self-relevance, which may be able to influence this ability. We test the influence of self-relevance on stopping specifically if increased self-relevance enhances reactive response inhibition. We measured stopping capabilities…
Descriptors: Inhibition, Self Control, Responses, Video Games
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Horn, Robert R.; Marchetto, Jonathan D. – Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2021
Purpose: We examined the effect of target pre-cues on quiet eye duration (QED). If quiet eye (QE) represents the initial and only period for the programming of movement parameters, then the precision of target pre-cues should not affect QED. In contrast, shorter QED after pre-cueing of targets implies some initial programming process to have…
Descriptors: Cues, Eye Movements, Psychomotor Skills, Undergraduate Students
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Oberländer, Kristin; Witte, Victoria; Mallien, Anne Stephanie; Gass, Peter; Bengtson, C. Peter; Bading, Hilmar – Learning & Memory, 2022
Differences in the learning associated transcriptional profiles between mouse strains with distinct learning abilities could provide insight into the molecular basis of learning and memory. The inbred mouse strain DBA/2 shows deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory, yet the transcriptional responses to learning and the underlying mechanisms of…
Descriptors: Learning, Memory, Animals, Research
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Usler, Evan R. – Topics in Language Disorders, 2022
The purpose of this article is to provide a theoretical account of the experience of stuttering that incorporates previous explanations and recent experimental findings. According to this account, stuttering-like disfluencies emerge during early childhood from excessive detection of cognitive conflict due to subtle limitations in speech and…
Descriptors: Stuttering, Conflict, Cognitive Processes, Speech Communication
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Hendry, Alexandra; Agyapong, Mary A.; D'Souza, Hana; Frick, Matilda A.; Portugal, Ana Maria; Konke, Linn Andersson; Cloke, Hamish; Bedford, Rachael; Smith, Tim J.; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Jones, Emily J. H.; Charman, Tony; Brocki, Karin C. – Infant and Child Development, 2022
Low inhibitory control (IC) is sometimes associated with enhanced problem-solving amongst adults, yet for young children high IC is primarily framed as inherently better than low IC. Here, we explore associations between IC and performance on a novel problem-solving task, amongst 102 English 2- and 3-year-olds (Study 1) and 84 Swedish children,…
Descriptors: Inhibition, Self Control, Problem Solving, Young Children
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Silverstein, Todd P. – Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 2019
Enzyme activators lower K[subscript m] (the Michaelis constant) and/or raise V[subscript max] (the asymptotic reaction velocity at infinite substrate concentration); conversely, inhibitors raise K[Subscript m] and/or lower V[subscript max]. But what if an effector moves both K[subscript m] and V[subscript max] in the same direction? Uncompetitive…
Descriptors: Biochemistry, Kinetics, Biological Influences, Inhibition
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Wissman, Kathryn T. – Applied Cognitive Psychology, 2020
"Collaborative inhibition" is the counterintuitive finding that learners working in a group recall less information compared with the combined nonredundant output of the same number of learners working individually (Weldon & Bellinger, 1997). Although research has shown that collaborative inhibition occurs for a variety of…
Descriptors: Cooperative Learning, Inhibition, Recall (Psychology), Group Activities
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Sadeghi, Saeid; Shalani, Bita; Nejati, Vahid – Early Child Development and Care, 2022
The inhibitory control (IC) is one of the basic executive functions (EFs) that all other EFs are hierarchically perched on this ability. Current knowledge of IC development in the elementary school years is limited. In this study, three tasks; go/no-go task (response inhibition), flanker task (attentional inhibition), and circle-tracing time task…
Descriptors: Gender Differences, Age Differences, Inhibition, Self Control
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Versteeg, Marjolein; Hafkemeijer, Anne; de Beaufort, Arnout Jan; Steendijk, Paul – Mind, Brain, and Education, 2021
Obtaining adequate understanding of scientific concepts is considered challenging due to learners' misconceptions about natural phenomena. Misconceptions may coexist with scientific knowledge in the brain. Therefore, misconceptions must be cognitively inhibited in order to select the scientific knowledge. There is, however, lack of substantial…
Descriptors: Concept Formation, Misconceptions, Scientific Concepts, Brain
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Candela, Maria Fernanda; Arenas, Nelson E.; Caicedo, Obradith; Malagon, Andres – Journal of Chemical Education, 2021
The inhibition of porcine pancreatic lipase by the drug orlistat was studied through a series of activities that combine experimental and computational procedures. The enzymatic activity of the lipase was determined by measuring enzyme kinetics and calculating parameters such as K[subscript m] and V[subscript max] from experimental data. Assays of…
Descriptors: Biochemistry, Drug Therapy, Kinetics, Measurement
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Moscarello, Justin M. – Learning & Memory, 2020
Signaled active avoidance (SAA) behavior requires the suppression of defensive reactions, such as freezing, that conflict with the avoidance response. The neural mechanisms of this inhibitory process are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that ventromedial prefrontal cortex projections to the nucleus reuniens of the thalamus are recruited…
Descriptors: Brain Hemisphere Functions, Coping, Responses, Inhibition
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