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Ricca, Bernard P.; Blaine, Bruce E. – Journal of Experimental Education, 2022
Researchers are encouraged to report effect size statistics to quantify treatment effects or effects due to group differences. However, estimates of effect sizes, most commonly Cohen's "d," make assumptions about the distribution of data that are not always true. An alternative nonparametric estimate of effect size, relying on the median…
Descriptors: Nonparametric Statistics, Computation, Effect Size
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Clark, Ted M.; Dickson-Karn, Nicole M.; Anderson, Ellie – Journal of Chemical Education, 2022
Student performance calculating the pH of a strong acid or strong base solution before and after instruction in general and analytical chemistry courses was investigated using open-response questions in which a pH equation was not provided. Prior to instruction, students in both classes scored very low. General chemistry students lacking prior…
Descriptors: Chemistry, Science Activities, Computation, Scientific Concepts
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Cairns, Maxwell; Prendergast, Luke A. – Research Synthesis Methods, 2022
As a measure of heterogeneity in meta-analysis, the coefficient of variation (CV) has been recently considered, providing researchers with a complement to the very popular I[superscript 2] measure. While I[superscript 2] measures the proportion of total variance that is due to variance of the random effects, the CV is the ratio of the standard…
Descriptors: Meta Analysis, Statistical Analysis, Intervals, Computation
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Kotsopoulos, Donna; Floyd, Lisa; Dickson, Brandon Allan; Nelson, Vivian; Makosz, Samantha – Early Childhood Education Journal, 2022
In this research we explore the extent to which computational thinking (CT) is evident in 3-6 year-old children's free play. CT is increasingly viewed as an important aspect of a child's school learning. Typically, CT is connected to learning with computers. Yet, much of learning in the early years is play-based, spontaneous, often…
Descriptors: Observation, Computation, Thinking Skills, Play
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Ramnarain-Seetohul, Vidasha; Bassoo, Vandana; Rosunally, Yasmine – Education and Information Technologies, 2022
In automated essay scoring (AES) systems, similarity techniques are used to compute the score for student answers. Several methods to compute similarity have emerged over the years. However, only a few of them have been widely used in the AES domain. This work shows the findings of a ten-year review on similarity techniques applied in AES systems…
Descriptors: Computer Assisted Testing, Essays, Scoring, Automation
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Brody, Jed – Physics Teacher, 2021
Bell's theorem is a topic of perennial fascination. Publishers and the general public have a steady appetite for approachable books about its implications. The scholarly literature includes many analogies to Bell's theorem and simple derivations of Bell inequalities, and some of these simplified discussions are the basis of interactive web pages.…
Descriptors: Calculus, Computation, Validity, Mathematical Logic
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Raykov, Tenko; Huber, Chuck; Marcoulides, George A.; Pusic, Martin; Menold, Natalja – Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives, 2021
A readily and widely applicable procedure is discussed that can be used to point and interval estimate the probabilities of particular responses on polytomous items at pre-specified points along underlying latent continua. The items are assumed thereby to be part of unidimensional multi-component measuring instruments that may contain also binary…
Descriptors: Probability, Computation, Test Items, Responses
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Chan, Wendy – Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 2022
Over the past decade, statisticians have developed methods to improve generalizations from nonrandom samples using propensity score methods. While these methods contribute to generalization research, their effectiveness is limited by small sample sizes. Small area estimation is a class of model-based methods that address the imprecision due to…
Descriptors: Generalization, Probability, Sample Size, Statistical Analysis
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Dimitrov, Dimiter M.; Atanasov, Dimitar V. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2022
This study offers an approach to testing for differential item functioning (DIF) in a recently developed measurement framework, referred to as "D"-scoring method (DSM). Under the proposed approach, called "P-Z" method of testing for DIF, the item response functions of two groups (reference and focal) are compared by…
Descriptors: Test Bias, Methods, Test Items, Scoring
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Kulinskaya, Elena; Mah, Eung Yaw – Research Synthesis Methods, 2022
To present time-varying evidence, cumulative meta-analysis (CMA) updates results of previous meta-analyses to incorporate new study results. We investigate the properties of CMA, suggest possible improvements and provide the first in-depth simulation study of the use of CMA and CUSUM methods for detection of temporal trends in random-effects…
Descriptors: Meta Analysis, Computation, Statistical Analysis, Statistical Bias
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McCartney, Mark – International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2021
An elementary method to calculate the area, centroid and volume of rotation of the Koch curve is presented. Classroom extensions are provided to allow students to investigate the method used.
Descriptors: Mathematics Instruction, Teaching Methods, Geometry, Computation
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Quintano, Mateus M.; Silva, Mateus X.; Belchior, Jadson C.; Braga, Joa~o P. – Journal of Chemical Education, 2021
Periodicity in electronic molar entropy values has been shown on the basis of the electronic structures of the elements. Also, with the approximations discussed herein, one can estimate the electronic molar entropy without atomic spectroscopy results. All of this can be accomplished by showing the connection between the vector model of the atom…
Descriptors: Quantum Mechanics, Molecular Structure, Thermodynamics, Computation
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Schwarzer, Guido; Efthimiou, Orestis; Rücker, Gerta – Research Synthesis Methods, 2021
The Peto odds ratio is a well-known effect measure in meta-analysis of binary outcomes. For pairwise comparisons, the Peto odds ratio estimator can be severely biased in the situation of unbalanced sample sizes in the two treatment groups or large treatment effects. In this publication, we evaluate Peto odds ratio estimators in the setting of…
Descriptors: Meta Analysis, Sample Size, Computation, Probability
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Rott, Kollin W.; Lin, Lifeng; Hodges, James S.; Siegel, Lianne; Shi, Amy; Chen, Yong; Chu, Haitao – Research Synthesis Methods, 2021
Meta-analysis is commonly used to compare two treatments. Network meta-analysis (NMA) is a powerful extension for comparing and contrasting multiple treatments simultaneously in a systematic review of multiple clinical trials. Although the practical utility of meta-analysis is apparent, it is not always straightforward to implement, especially for…
Descriptors: Bayesian Statistics, Meta Analysis, Computation, Networks
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Adams, William; Sonntag, Matthew D. – Journal of Chemical Education, 2022
Electrophilic aromatic substitution (EAS) represents an important class of reactions taught in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum. The EAS reaction of benzene and its substituted derivatives is generally described as proceeding through a carbocation (arenium cation) intermediate, and the regiochemistry of the product is heavily…
Descriptors: Undergraduate Students, Science Activities, Computation, Prediction
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