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ERIC Number: ED559947
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2013
Pages: 240
Abstractor: As Provided
ISBN: 978-1-3033-3551-8
The Effects of Visual Imagery and Keyword Cues on Third-Grade Readers' Memory, Comprehension, and Vocabulary Knowledge
Brooker, Heather Rogers
ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, Clemson University
It is estimated that nearly 70% of high school students in the United States need some form of reading remediation, with the most common need being the ability to comprehend the content and significance of the text (Biancarosa & Snow, 2004). Research findings support the use of visual imagery and keyword cues as effective comprehension strategies (Denner, McGinfly, & Brown, 1989; Gambrell & Jawitz, 1993; Sadoski, 1985). This study extends the current body of research on these two strategies by (a) exploring and comparing the "combined" effects and interactions of training students in the coordinated use of visual imagery and keyword cues, and (b) examining the effects of training students in the use of keyword cues as a post reading comprehension strategy. For the purposes of this study, 98 third-grade students were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment conditions: (a) visual imagery (during reading), (b) keyword cues (after reading), (c) visual imagery (during reading) + keyword cues (after reading), or (d) general memory instructions (before reading). Strategy instruction for all treatment conditions took place across four instructional lessons, following Pearson and Gallagher's (1983) "gradual release of responsibility" model. In order to examine main effects of treatment condition on narrative and expository dependent measures of memory (free recall), explicit and implicit comprehension (cued recall), and contextually relevant vocabulary knowledge, participants were administered immediate-post assessments one week after their final instructional lesson, and delayed-post assessments six weeks after their final instructional lesson. A series of parallel MANOVAs were conducted to analyze student performance on the immediate/delayed-post assessment iii narrative and expository dependent measures. Follow-up post hoc analyses of significant univariates revealed that participants in the two treatment conditions where they were trained to utilize keyword cues, significantly outscored their peers in one or both of the other two treatment conditions on (a) immediate-post assessment measures of memory, and explicit and implicit comprehension, and (b) delayed-post assessment measures of implicit comprehension. In addition, qualitative analyses revealed higher accounts of perceived value as a function of future strategy use, for participants who were trained in the use of keyword cues. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site:
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: Grade 3; Primary Education; Elementary Education; Early Childhood Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A