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Yildirim, Hasan Hüseyin; Yikmis, Ahmet – Online Submission, 2022
The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the concrete-representational-abstract instruction strategies employed in the direct instruction of fractions to students with learning disabilities. Furthermore, the generalization of the instruction to different settings and tools, the follow-up data for one and three weeks after the…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Instructional Effectiveness, Mathematics Instruction, Direct Instruction
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Hinton, Vanessa; Flores, Margaret – Rural Special Education Quarterly, 2022
Mathematics is crucial to the educational and vocational success of students. The concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) approach is a method to teach students mathematical concepts. The CRA involves instruction with manipulatives, representations, and numbers only in different lessons (i.e., concrete lessons include manipulatives but not…
Descriptors: Mathematics Instruction, Addition, Mathematical Concepts, Teaching Methods
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Flores, Margaret M.; Hinton, Vanessa M. – Beyond Behavior, 2022
The concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) sequence of instruction is an explicit methodology for teaching mathematics using multiple representations of concepts. Learning concepts through multiple representations fosters conceptual understanding and mathematical thinking. This article describes how a special education teacher used explicit CRA…
Descriptors: Mathematics Instruction, Elementary School Students, Emotional Disturbances, Behavior Disorders
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Milton, Jessica H.; Flores, Margaret M.; Hinton, Vanessa M.; Dunn, Caroline; Darch, Craig B. – Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 2023
This study investigated the effects of a place value intervention with third-grade students with learning disabilities. The intervention added content to a research-based intervention using the concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) sequence. The added content reflected current mathematics standards for third grade. Students' place value…
Descriptors: Grade 3, Students with Disabilities, Learning Disabilities, Intervention
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Zhang, Shudong; Yu, Shuyuan; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Yunting; Jiang, Ting – International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 2022
Fractions are an important mathematical concept for elementary students. However, students with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) struggle with learning fractions. Research has demonstrated that concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) instruction is an effective practice for students with learning and developmental disabilities. Here we…
Descriptors: Mathematics Instruction, Teaching Methods, Sequential Approach, Fractions
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Morano, Stephanie; Flores, Margaret M.; Hinton, Vanessa; Meyer, Jillian – Exceptionality, 2020
This study compares the effects of a concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) intervention against a modified CRA-Integrated (CRA-I) intervention using a pretest-posttest design with random assignment of matched pairs to intervention conditions. The researchers designed both interventions to improve participants' understanding of and ability to…
Descriptors: Students with Disabilities, Intervention, Mathematical Concepts, Concept Formation
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Nicole M. McKevett; Robin S. Codding; Kristin R. Running – Remedial and Special Education, 2024
Preschool students' mastery of early numeracy skills is important, so they enter kindergarten with the necessary prerequisite skills, which are predictive of achievement in later elementary grades. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) instructional package on the foundational early…
Descriptors: Preschool Education, Numeracy, Mathematics Skills, Program Effectiveness
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Margaret M. Flores; Vanessa M. Hinton; Kelly B. Schweck – Learning Disability Quarterly, 2024
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the concrete-representational-abstract--integrated (CRA-I) sequence on students with learning disabilities' performance when learning fraction and decimal concepts. Three elementary-level students in Grades 4 and 6 participated in a single-case multiple probe across behaviors study. The…
Descriptors: Elementary School Students, Grade 4, Grade 6, Students with Disabilities
Goya, Dana – ProQuest LLC, 2023
As students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participate in the general education setting at greater rates, they are expected to meet rigorous grade-level academic standards. Students with ASD typically struggle with problem solving, higher-ordered thinking, and mathematical reasoning. When students enter middle school, mathematics becomes more…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Algebra, Equations (Mathematics), Middle School Students
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Xiaojun Ma; Yan Ping Xin – Journal of Special Education, 2024
The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) emphasizes the teaching of "Big Ideas" in mathematics. This study focuses on the part-part-whole (PPW) relationship as a crucial aspect of word problem solving involving addition and subtraction. This study, conducted in the United States, evaluated the effects of conceptual…
Descriptors: Children, Intelligence Tests, Grade 2, Autism Spectrum Disorders
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Hinton, Vanessa; Gibbs, Anna; Franklin, Toni – Journal of the American Academy of Special Education Professionals, 2020
Children with cognitive delays or developmental disabilities are at elevated risk of having a persistent mathematics disability. Students who have difficulty in mathematics display trouble with awareness of numbers and numeric concepts. This is alarming because students who display lower mathematics performance early on in school make smaller…
Descriptors: Students with Disabilities, Inclusion, Direct Instruction, Mathematics Instruction
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Yakubova, Gulnoza; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Baer, Briella L. – Preventing School Failure, 2020
With the increasing attention and surge of empirical research in providing academic instruction for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comes the need to provide teachers with research-supported strategies. Using one evidence-based strategy for teaching mathematics to students with high incidence disabilities, and another for teaching…
Descriptors: Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Video Technology, Mathematics Instruction
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AL-salahat, Mohammad Mousa Salem – International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology, 2022
Geometry is one of the basic areas of school mathematics education, and it is important for elementary students. However, students with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) struggle with geometry learning. Research has demonstrated that concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) teaching is an effective practice for students with learning…
Descriptors: Geometry, Mathematics Instruction, Students with Disabilities, Learning Disabilities
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Flores, Margaret M.; Hinton, Vanessa M.; Meyer, Jill M. – Remedial and Special Education, 2020
Understanding related to fraction concepts is a critical prerequisite for advanced study in mathematics such as algebra. Therefore, it is important that elementary students form conceptual and procedural understanding of fractional numbers, allowing for advancement in mathematics. The concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) instructional sequence…
Descriptors: Mathematics Instruction, Number Concepts, Fractions, Elementary School Mathematics
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Flores, Margaret M.; Milton, Jessica H. – Exceptionality, 2020
The development of conceptual multiplication knowledge will assist students in making progress within current mathematics standards. Previous research has shown the concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) sequence to be successful in teaching multiplication with regrouping with an emphasis on conceptual understanding while developing fluency and…
Descriptors: Multiplication, Sequential Approach, Mathematics Instruction, Mathematics
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