ERIC Number: ED443638
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1999-Nov
Outdoor Program Models: Placing Cooperative Adventure and Adventure Education Models on the Continuum.
Guthrie, Steven P.
In two articles on outdoor programming models, Watters distinguished four models on a continuum ranging from the common adventure model, with minimal organizational structure and leadership control, to the guide service model, in which leaders are autocratic and trips are highly structured. Club programs and instructional programs were in between, with clubs nearer to common adventure programs, and instructional programs nearer to guided programs. This paper suggests that Watters' club model is better called a cooperative adventure model, and that adventure education is distinct from other instructional programs. Cooperative adventure provides leaders and some trip structure, while preserving many benefits of the common adventure model such as interpersonal cooperation, freedom of choice, self-reliance among participants, and participant decision making. Since organizations other than clubs use the cooperative model, and clubs are free to use any model on the continuum, Watters' club model would be better called the cooperative model. Adventure education is distinct from basic-skills training models because it goes beyond technical skills to include interpersonal skills, leadership, intrapersonal psychological growth, and areas such as self-confidence and self-esteem. Because they focus on experiential education, which assumes learners are actively involved in the learning process and decision making, adventure education programs are less directive than guided programs or technical skills-based programs. They would appear on the continuum between cooperative and instructional/school programs. Two figures depict Watters' continuum and the continuum proposed in this article. (TD)
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A