ERIC Number: ED168169
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1978-Nov
From Bureaucracy to Professionalism: An Essay on the Democratization of School Supervision in the Early Twentieth Century.
In the early twentieth century, supervisors began to move toward increasing professionalism in their positions. In the late nineteenth century, supervision was characterized by bureaucratic methods in a centralized school management system. Research reveals that after the turn of the century, there was a concerted effort by supervisors to deemphasize bureaucratic procedures and to increase emphasis on a more democratic and professional outlook, at least in theory. One reason for this change of emphasis was that supervisors realized the tenuous position they occupied in the hierarchical school organization. The ill-defined nature of supervision and the indefinite and obscure status of supervisors within schools contributed to the desire to find legitimacy for their work. Second, supervisors sought to professionalize as a result of mounting criticism by teachers and other educators against rating and other bureaucratic devices for measuring teacher efficiency. Third, supervisors sought to professionalize to distinguish their work from that of administrators. The supervisors' quest for professional status to combat bureaucratization assumed greater importance after 1920. An analysis of literature in this field indicates that while theory supported the democratization and professionalization of supervision, very little actual progress toward these goals was made. (Author/JM)
Publication Type: Historical Materials; Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A