ERIC Number: EJ786193
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2008-Mar
Dual-Task Processing as a Measure of Executive Function: A Comparison between Adults with Williams and Down Syndromes
Kittler, Phyllis M.; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.
American Journal on Mental Retardation, v113 n2 p117-132 Mar 2008
Behavioral phenotypes of individuals with Williams syndrome and individuals with Down syndrome have been contrasted in relation to short-term memory. People with Down syndrome are stronger visuospatially and those with Williams syndrome are stronger verbally. We examined short-term memory, then explored whether dual-task processing further characterized behavioral phenotypes in 53 older adults with Down syndrome, 10 with Williams syndrome, and 39 controls. Short-term memory profiles generally conformed to those of younger individuals. Pegs placement and number repetition were performed singly and simultaneously. There were no etiology group performance differences on single tasks. During concurrent processing, all groups maintained single-task performance on pegs, but declined on number repetition. However, participants with Down syndrome declined more, suggesting relatively greater weakness in the dual-task processing component of executive function for this group.
Descriptors: Down Syndrome, Short Term Memory, Etiology, Mental Retardation, Verbal Ability, Spatial Ability, Visual Perception, Comparative Analysis, Control Groups, Profiles, Task Analysis, Cognitive Processes
American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. P.O. Box 1897, Lawrence, KS 66044-1897. Tel: 785-843-1235; Fax: 785-843-1274; e-mail: AJMR@allenpress.com; Web site: http://aaidd.allenpress.com
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A