NotesFAQContact Us
Collection
Advanced
Search Tips
Back to results
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ958486
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012-Apr
Pages: 12
Abstractor: As Provided
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-0278-2626
Attentional Set-Shifting in Fragile X Syndrome
Van der Molen, M. J. W.; Van der Molen, M. W.; Ridderinkhof, K. R.; Hamel, B. C. J.; Curfs, L. M. G.; Ramakers, G. J. A.
Brain and Cognition, v78 n3 p206-217 Apr 2012
The ability to flexibly adapt to the changing demands of the environment is often reported as a core deficit in fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, the cognitive processes that determine this attentional set-shifting deficit remain elusive. The present study investigated attentional set-shifting ability in fragile X syndrome males with the well-validated intra/extra dimensional set-shifting paradigm (IED) which offers detailed assessment of rule learning, reversal learning, and attentional set-shifting ability within and between stimulus dimensions. A novel scoring method for IED stage errors was employed to interpret set-shifting failure in terms of repetitive decision-making, distraction to irrelevance, and set-maintenance failure. Performance of FXS males was compared to typically developing children matched on mental age, adults matched on chronological age, and individuals with Down syndrome matched on both mental and chronological age. Results revealed that a significant proportion of FXS males already failed prior to the intra-dimensional set-shift stage, whereas all control participants successfully completed the stages up to the crucial extra-dimensional set-shift. FXS males showed a specific weakness in reversal learning, which was characterized by repetitive decision-making during the reversal of newly acquired stimulus-response associations in the face of simple stimulus configurations. In contrast, when stimulus configurations became more complex, FXS males displayed increased distraction to irrelevant stimuli. These findings are interpreted in terms of the cognitive demands imposed by the stages of the IED in relation to the alleged neural deficits in FXS. (Contains 4 figures and 4 tables.)
Elsevier. 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887-4800. Tel: 877-839-7126; Tel: 407-345-4020; Fax: 407-363-1354; e-mail: usjcs@elsevier.com; Web site: http://www.elsevier.com
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A