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Showing 1 to 15 of 1,812 results Save | Export
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Rouhani, Nina; Norman, Kenneth A.; Niv, Yael – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2018
Reward-prediction errors track the extent to which rewards deviate from expectations, and aid in learning. How do such errors in prediction interact with memory for the rewarding episode? Existing findings point to both cooperative and competitive interactions between learning and memory mechanisms. Here, we investigated whether learning about…
Descriptors: Rewards, Learning, Memory, Interaction
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Lew, Adina R.; Howe, Mark L. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2017
Events consist of diverse elements, each processed in specialized neocortical networks, with temporal lobe memory systems binding these elements to form coherent event memories. We provide a novel theoretical analysis of an unexplored consequence of the independence of memory systems for elements and their bindings, 1 that raises the paradoxical…
Descriptors: Schemata (Cognition), Memory, Recall (Psychology), Accuracy
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Nakayama, Masataka; Tanida, Yuki; Saito, Satoru – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2015
Serial ordering mechanisms have been investigated extensively in psychology and psycholinguistics. It has also been demonstrated repeatedly that long-term phonological knowledge contributes to serial ordering. However, the mechanisms that contribute to serial ordering have yet to be fully understood. To understand these mechanisms, we demonstrate…
Descriptors: Psycholinguistics, Phonological Awareness, Phonology, Serial Ordering
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Wirth, Robert; Janczyk, Markus; Kunde, Wilfried – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2018
Actions aim to produce effects in the environment. To accomplish this properly, we not only have to recruit the appropriate motor patterns, but also we must be able to monitor whether an intended effect has ultimately been realized. Here, we investigated the impact of such effect monitoring on performance in multitasking situations: Multitasking…
Descriptors: Task Analysis, Performance, Cognitive Processes, Spatial Ability
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Carpenter, Alexis C.; Schacter, Daniel L. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2017
Episodic memory involves flexible retrieval processes that allow us to link together distinct episodes, make novel inferences across overlapping events, and recombine elements of past experiences when imagining future events. However, the same flexible retrieval and recombination processes that underpin these adaptive functions may also leave…
Descriptors: Memory, Recall (Psychology), Inferences, Accuracy
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Beesley, Tom; Hanafi, Gunadi; Vadillo, Miguel A.; Shanks, David R.; Livesey, Evan J. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2018
Two experiments examined biases in selective attention during contextual cuing of visual search. When participants were instructed to search for a target of a particular color, overt attention (as measured by the location of fixations) was biased strongly toward distractors presented in that same color. However, when participants searched for…
Descriptors: Attention, Cues, Bias, Visual Perception
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Miller, Jeff; Brookie, Kate; Wales, Sid; Wallace, Simon; Kaup, Barbara – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2018
In 8 experiments using language processing tasks ranging from lexical decision to sensibility judgment, participants made hand or foot responses after reading hand- or foot-associated words such as action verbs. In general, response time (RT) tended to be faster when the hand- versus foot-associated word was compatible with the limb that was…
Descriptors: Verbs, Brain, Language Processing, Reaction Time
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Prince, Jon B.; Stevens, Catherine J.; Jones, Mari Riess; Tillmann, Barbara – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2018
Despite the empirical evidence for the power of the cognitive capacity of implicit learning of structures and regularities in several modalities and materials, it remains controversial whether implicit learning extends to the learning of temporal structures and regularities. We investigated whether (a) an artificial grammar can be learned equally…
Descriptors: Intonation, Suprasegmentals, Grammar, Task Analysis
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Weaver, Starla M.; Arrington, Catherine M. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2013
The current study explored the potential for hierarchical representations to influence action selection during voluntary task switching. Participants switched between 4 individual task elements. In Experiment 1, participants were encouraged to represent the task elements as grouped within a hierarchy based on experimental manipulations of varying…
Descriptors: Task Analysis, Cognitive Processes, Persistence, Role
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Mayr, Ulrich; Kleffner-Canucci, Killian; Kikumoto, Atsushi; Redford, Melissa A. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2014
It is almost a truism that language aids serial-order control through self-cuing of upcoming sequential elements. We measured speech onset latencies as subjects performed hierarchically organized task sequences while "thinking aloud" each task label. Surprisingly, speech onset latencies and response times (RTs) were highly synchronized,…
Descriptors: Language Role, Executive Function, Task Analysis, College Students
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Beesley, T.; Shanks, David R. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2012
A fundamental principle of learning is that predictive cues or signals compete with each other to gain control over behavior. Associative and propositional reasoning theories of learning provide radically different accounts of cue competition. Propositional accounts predict that under conditions that do not afford or warrant the use of higher…
Descriptors: Learning Theories, Logical Thinking, Associative Learning, Cues
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von Hecker, Ulrich; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Wolf, Lukas; Fazilat-Pour, Masoud – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2016
Memory performance in linear order reasoning tasks (A > B, B > C, C > D, etc.) shows quicker, and more accurate responses to queries on wider (AD) than narrower (AB) pairs on a hypothetical linear mental model (A -- B -- C -- D). While indicative of an analogue representation, research so far did not provide positive evidence for spatial…
Descriptors: Memory, Short Term Memory, Spatial Ability, Visual Perception
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Pertzov, Yoni; Manohar, Sanjay; Husain, Masud – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2017
Working memory is now established as a fundamental cognitive process across a range of species. Loss of information held in working memory has the potential to disrupt many aspects of cognitive function. However, despite its significance, the mechanisms underlying rapid forgetting remain unclear, with intense recent debate as to whether it is…
Descriptors: Short Term Memory, Competition, Visual Perception, Fidelity
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Pena, Marcela; Bion, Ricardo A. H.; Nespor, Marina – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2011
The iambic-trochaic law has been proposed to account for the grouping of auditory stimuli: Sequences of sounds that differ only in duration are grouped as iambs (i.e., the most prominent element marks the end of a sequence of sounds), and sequences that differ only in pitch or intensity are grouped as trochees (i.e., the most prominent element…
Descriptors: Visual Stimuli, Auditory Stimuli, Memory, Experiments
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Lotz, Anja; Kinder, Annette – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2006
In this article, the authors report 2 experiments that investigated the sources of information used in transfer and nontransfer tasks in artificial grammar learning. Multiple regression analyses indicated that 2 types of information about repeating elements were crucial for performance in both tasks: information about the repetition of adjacent…
Descriptors: Grammar, Multiple Regression Analysis, Test Items, Transfer of Training
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