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Slavin, Robert E. – Elementary School Journal, 1987
States that the combination of group rewards (based on group members' individual learning) and peer interaction on learning tasks is necessary to produce learning gains characteristic of effective cooperative learning methods. Discusses research on group contingencies and cooperative learning in the elementary school classroom.(NH)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Behavioral Science Research, Elementary Education, Elementary School Students
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Slavin, Robert E. – Elementary School Journal, 1984
Reports several field experimental research studies which tested the effects of group and individual incentive structures and tasks on individual academic achievement. The positive effects of cooperative learning methods result from the use of cooperative incentives, not cooperative tasks, apparently due to change in peer norms. (CB)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Classroom Techniques, Cooperation, Elementary School Students
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Rohrkemper, Mary; Corno, Lyn – Elementary School Journal, 1988
Argues that classroom learning inevitably requires adaptive responses by students, and that teachers should deliberately promote the development of students' adaptive learning within a supportive classroom environment by emphasizing the constructive benefits of functional failure and the limited benefits of uninformative success. (SKC)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Class Activities, Classroom Environment, Developmental Tasks
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Thomas, John W.; Strage, Amy – Elementary School Journal, 1988
Defines self-directed learning and explores its importance for elementary education. Focuses on ways in which classroom practices and conditions can encourage or discourage capabilities and dispositions to engage in self-directed learning. Describes the ideal classroom environment with respect to demands, supports, opportunity, and goal structure.…
Descriptors: Attitude Change, Classroom Environment, Definitions, Elementary Education
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Bennett, Neville; Desforges, Charles – Elementary School Journal, 1988
Discusses theoretical perspectives for improving teachers' understandings of task assignment in classrooms, and presents evidence from two British studies that highlight both the extent of the task assignment problem and possible causes. (SKC)
Descriptors: Class Activities, Classroom Environment, Classroom Research, Classroom Techniques
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Marx, Ronald W.; Walsh, John – Elementary School Journal, 1988
Offers a descriptive theory of the nature of classroom tasks. Describes the interplay among (1) the conditions under which tasks are set; (2) the cognitive plans students use to accomplish tasks; and (3) the products students create as a result of their task-related efforts. (SKC)
Descriptors: Class Activities, Classroom Environment, Classroom Research, Cognitive Processes
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Rosenholtz, Susan J.; Simpson, Carl – Elementary School Journal, 1984
Hypothesizes that organizational conditions in classrooms affect aspects of student motivation, i.e., students' academic self-concepts, their perceptions of their peers, and their perceptions of school. Research findings in studies of elementary students confirmed the hypothesis that classrooms that narrowly define academic ability increase the…
Descriptors: Academic Aptitude, Class Organization, Elementary Education, Elementary School Students
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Covington, Martin V. – Elementary School Journal, 1984
Describes the self-worth theory of achievement motivation, the research generated under this model, and the implications of this research for classroom teaching. Discusses developmental changes in ability perceptions and the conflict between strategies employed by students to maintain a sense of worthiness in the face of failure and the prevailing…
Descriptors: Achievement Need, Adults, Age Differences, Classroom Techniques
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McCloskey, Mary Lou; Quay, Lorene C. – Elementary School Journal, 1987
Many teachers have negative attitudes towards mainstreaming handicapped students. This study examines an intervention teaching method and teachers' attitudes. Results indicate that regardless of treatment, student teachers' attitudes will change in the direction of their classroom teachers' attitude. (JS)
Descriptors: Attitude Change, Attitudes toward Disabilities, Disabilities, Elementary Education
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Hord, Shirley M.; Huling-Austin, Leslie – Elementary School Journal, 1986
Describes the Principal-Teacher Interaction Study that focused on the interventions made by nine elementary school principals and their staff and on their involvement together in the implementation of new curricula. Examines what principals and others did in the process of facilitating change and what effects their interventions had on the…
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Change Agents, Curriculum Development, Educational Change
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Pearson, P. David; Dole, Janice A. – Elementary School Journal, 1987
Reviews representative instructional studies of inference training, reciprocal teaching, and process training. Discusses both the concept of explicit comprehension instruction and potential difficulties in classroom implementation. Raises two important curricular concerns. (NH)
Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Elementary Education, Elementary School Teachers, Instructional Improvement
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Zahorik, John A. – Elementary School Journal, 1987
Recognizing the importance of collegiality in professional growth, this descriptive study examines one aspect of interaction among teachers--the information that teachers exchange about classroom teaching. Suggestions are offered for the development of collegiality and interview guide questions are presented in the appendix. (JS)
Descriptors: Classroom Techniques, Elementary Education, Elementary School Teachers, Helping Relationship
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D'Amato, John – Elementary School Journal, 1988
Describes "acting," a process of group resistance to teachers among low-income Hawaiian children that occurs at the beginning of the school year. Relates this process to the children's peer group norms and discusses ways in which classrooms can be adapted to the peer culture of Hawaiian children. (SKC)
Descriptors: Educational Research, Elementary Education, Low Income Groups, Minority Group Children
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Brooks, Douglas M.; Woolfolk, Anita E. – Elementary School Journal, 1987
This review presents evidence that student nonverbal behavior may be an important component in the formation of teachers' impressions, attitudes, beliefs, and reciprocal behavioral expressions. Results of the studies are considered within the research on impression formation, communication theory, and classroom activity and participation…
Descriptors: Elementary Education, Elementary School Students, Elementary School Teachers, Nonverbal Communication
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Block, James H. – Elementary School Journal, 1984
Addresses the questions of why and how school learning activities might be made more playlike. Suggests that the concept of flow and of mastery learning are linked. While this relationship must be tested empirically, it offers the possibility of improving teaching techniques. (CB)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Classroom Techniques, Elementary Education, Elementary School Students
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