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Sparrow, W. A.; Shinkfield, Alison J.; Day, R. H.; Zerman, L. – American Journal on Mental Retardation, 1999
Three experiments examined whether limitations in perceptual ability by 24 individuals with mental retardation extended to learning perceptual categories based on elements of actions. Individuals with mental retardation had difficulty identifying some actions, slower decision times for activity identification, and could not identify the actor's…
Descriptors: Adults, Cognitive Processes, Mental Retardation, Pattern Recognition
Siperstein, Gary N.; Leffert, James S.; Wenz-Gross, Melodie – American Journal on Mental Retardation, 1997
This study observed 65 friendship/acquaintance dyads, half of which involved one child with learning problems, among preadolescent children during play. Unlike friendships between children without disabilities, friendships involving a disabled child were marked by limited collaboration and shared decision making, a low level of cooperative play…
Descriptors: Children, Cooperation, Friendship, Interaction Process Analysis
Yu, Dickie; And Others – American Journal on Mental Retardation, 1989
Research findings were reviewed on the Auditory Visual Combined Discrimination Test, which can be used with severely and profoundly mentally retarded persons to assess basic position, visual, and auditory discriminations. The test was found to be reliable and predictive of client performance in classroom learning, language, and vocational tasks.…
Descriptors: Discrimination Learning, Perception Tests, Predictive Measurement, Severe Mental Retardation
Hall, Scott; Oliver, Chris; Murphy, Glynis – American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2001
The early development of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in 16 young children with developmental disabilities was tracked over an 18-month period. Naturalistic observations in each child's classroom found a significant association between early SIB and low levels of social contact, which may be considered as a risk marker for SIB exacerbation.…
Descriptors: Classroom Observation Techniques, Developmental Disabilities, Early Intervention, Individual Development
Conners, Frances A. – American Journal on Mental Retardation, 1990
The investigation of interactions between the abilities of stimulus discrimination and simple learning and two instructional variables (discrimination difficulty and degree of overlearning) with 27 mentally retarded adolescents found an interaction between stimulus discrimination and the number of words presented at one time for learning…
Descriptors: Adolescents, Computer Assisted Instruction, Difficulty Level, Discrimination Learning
Yoder, Paul J.; Davies, Betty – American Journal on Mental Retardation, 1992
This study, with 19 young children (36-76 months old) with developmental delays, in the first stage of language learning, found that the children used more frequent language and more diverse vocabulary in routine than in nonroutine situations. The protocol for parent identification of routines is appended. (DB)
Descriptors: Context Effect, Developmental Disabilities, Expressive Language, Language Acquisition
Sevcik, Rose A.; Romski, Mary Ann – American Journal on Mental Retardation, 1995
This brief statement supports more research on the linguistic and cognitive abilities of animals, particularly primates, and sees direct applicability of such research to language learning by humans with mental retardation who have not learned to speak. (DB)
Descriptors: Animal Behavior, Animals, Cognitive Development, Language Acquisition
Anderson, Britt – American Journal on Mental Retardation, 1994
A general learning impairment model and a reasoning insight model, both in rats, were reviewed for parallels to theories of human cognitive deficiency, leading to the conclusion that animal models of the cognitive deficiency states of mental retardation are underutilized and that human mental retardation researchers would benefit from greater…
Descriptors: Animal Behavior, Cognitive Processes, Learning Theories, Mental Retardation
Joseph, Beth; And Others – American Journal on Mental Retardation, 1997
Five adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (characterized by short stature, learning difficulties, incomplete sexual development, and uncontrollable eating) learned the conditional relations necessary for the formation of two equivalence classes under differential/nondifferential and edible/nonedible outcomes. Performance on test trials was better…
Descriptors: Adults, Congenital Impairments, Discrimination Learning, Eating Disorders
McDermott, Suzanne – American Journal on Mental Retardation, 1994
Data reports from South Carolina's 92 independent school districts during 1980-81 were used to calculate prevalence rates of mental retardation and learning disabilities. These prevalence rates were 41.66/1,000 children enrolled for mental retardation and 33.21/1,000 children enrolled for learning disabilities. Additional analysis showed that…
Descriptors: Incidence, Learning Disabilities, Mental Retardation, School Districts
Soraci, S. A., Jr.; And Others – American Journal on Mental Retardation, 1990
Children with mental retardation are particularly prone to failure on relational tasks such as oddity and match-to-sample, suggesting a differential sensitivity to relational information. This paper reports on several studies in which characteristics of stimulus arrays were enhanced. Results demonstrated the theoretical and practical significance…
Descriptors: Attention Control, Cognitive Development, Concept Formation, Discrimination Learning
Ohr, Phyllis S.; Fagen, Jeffrey W. – American Journal on Mental Retardation, 1994
The ability of 10 9-month-old infants with Down's syndrome to acquire a simple contingency was assessed. Unlike a group of nondisabled infants, the Down's syndrome infants did not, in general, learn the contingency. Results are related to the possibility of a decline in conditionability with age and a relationship between conditionability and…
Descriptors: Age Differences, Behavior Modification, Behavioral Science Research, Cognitive Development
Carlin, Michael T.; Soraci, Sal A.; Strawbridge, Christina P.; Dennis, Nancy; Loiselle, Raquel; Chechile, Nicholas A. – American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2003
Abilities of individuals (n=42), either with or without mental retardation, to search for and detect changes to naturalistic scenes were investigated. Individuals with mental retardation required more time to detect changes, especially changes of marginal interest. Eye-tracking analysis of six participants suggested that individuals with mental…
Descriptors: Adolescents, Attention Control, Discrimination Learning, Eye Fixations
Kroeger, Tracy L.; Rojahn, Johannes; Naglieri, Jack A. – American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2001
This study with 50 adults with mental retardation, found that performance on the Facial Discrimination Task (Emotional and Age Tasks) was significantly correlated to the Cognitive Assessment System total score. Hierarchical regression analyses produced results suggesting that cognitive processes are involved in processing facial stimuli in a…
Descriptors: Adults, Cognitive Processes, Discrimination Learning, Facial Expressions
Fletcher, Kathryn L.; Huffman, Lisa F.; Bray, Norman W. – American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2003
Effects of type of prompt on the use of external strategies were examined with 272 children (ages 7-17) with or without mental retardation. A task requiring memory for object placement was performed under one of four conditions: no prompt, verbal prompt, physical prompt, verbal and physical prompt. Results suggested that strategy use by older…
Descriptors: Adolescents, Age Differences, Children, Cognitive Development
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