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Clement, John; Brown, David – 1984
In this paper examples of the role of analogical reasoning in expert problem solving are presented. These are intended to show that using an analogy can change an expert's understanding of a problem situation by changing the conceptual model he or she uses to think about the situation. This suggests that using a good analogy may allow students to…
Descriptors: Analogy, Cognitive Structures, College Science, Concept Formation
Clement, John – 1978
This paper attempts to show that it is possible to analyze a problem solving protocol in which the subject spontaneously generates a series of analogies. The qualitative physics problem given to the subject describes a situation where that which is unfamiliar is often solved by relating it to several analogous situations that are more familiar.…
Descriptors: Analogy, Cognitive Structures, College Science, Higher Education
Clement, John – 1987
Reviewed are findings on misconceptions in mechanics and their instructional implications. Many misconceptions are widespread and resistant to change but students have useful intuitions and reasoning processes that could be used more fully. One strategy for dealing with misconceptions is described. It stresses anchoring intuitions, analogical…
Descriptors: Analogy, College Science, Concept Formation, Higher Education
Clement, John – 1978
This paper posits a cognitive model for understanding and learning physics that is an alternative to the formal deductive system. Recent findings of Fuller, Karplus, Lawson, and others are cited in arguing against using a formal deductive approach to teaching physics. The model demonstrates types of action-oriented knowledge structures as they…
Descriptors: Cognitive Development, Cognitive Processes, Cognitive Structures, College Science
Clement, John – 1988
Some central issues in discussions of creative processes in science are: (1) the mechanism(s) by which hypothesis formation takes place; (2) the sources of new knowledge during hypothesis formation; and (3) the "Eureka" versus steady accumulation (accretion) issue concerning the pace of change during hypothesis formation. This paper…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Creative Thinking, Hypothesis Testing, Models
Clement, John – 1983
This paper presents evidence to indicate that spontaneously generated analogies can play a significant role in the problem solving process of scientifically trained individuals. In addition, it is suggested that these individuals exhibit more than one method for generating analogies. Ten scientists (representing physics, mathematics, and computer…
Descriptors: Analogy, Cognitive Structures, College Science, Concept Formation
Clement, John – 1987
In this study 34 spontaneous analogies produced by 16 college freshmen while solving qualitative physics problems are analyzed. A number of the analogies were invalid in the sense that they led to an incorrect answer from the physicist's point of view. However, many were valid, and a few were powerful in the sense that they seemed not only to help…
Descriptors: Analogy, Cognitive Structures, College Science, Concept Formation
Clement, John – 1987
Evidence from video tapes of experts thinking aloud and using analogies in scientific problem solving is presented. Four processes appear to be important in using an analogy: (1) generating the analogy; (2) establishing confidence in the validity of the analogy relation; (3) understanding the analogous case; and (4) applying findings to the…
Descriptors: Analogy, Cognitive Structures, Cognitive Style, College Science
Clement, John – 1987
This document focuses on evidence from problem solving case studies which indicate that analogy, extreme case analogies, and physical intuition can play an important role as forms of nonformal reasoning in scientific thinking. Two examples of nonformal reasoning are examined in greater detail from 10 case studies of "expert" problem solving.…
Descriptors: Analogy, College Science, Higher Education, Intuition
Clement, John; And Others – 1989
Three purposes of this study were to: (1) propose some organizing theoretical and observational definitions of the anchor construct; (2) present some initial findings from a diagnostic test designed to uncover anchors for high school physics instruction; and (3) provoke an initial discussion of the new methodological issues that arise in this…
Descriptors: Cognitive Structures, Concept Formation, Concept Teaching, Diagnostic Tests
Clement, John – 1984
Since Polya, Wertheimer, and Hadamard's descriptions of qualitative reasoning strategies used by scientists and mathematicians, very little data have been collected on whether these strategies are actually used by experts. This study used video-taped thinking-aloud interviews to examine the problem solving strategies of professors and advanced…
Descriptors: Analogy, Learning, Logical Thinking, Physics